Alchemical Dictionary - A


Rulandus: are all Hermetic equivalents for lead. See Plumbum and Saturn.Other equivalents in use were the Scape-Goat, the Dual Chibor, Draiccium, Elevator, Araxat, Alusa, Ruba, Alech, Allonoch, Alabrig, Alokot, Armic, Amioch, Amitich, Araxat, Azoro, Balamba, Cartistilium, Koal, Molybdos, Mosquet dei, Molibra, Mosider, Rasas, Rasasa, Rolos, Roe, Rocli. All these are technical terms, which in themselves have no meaning, but which were used to signify Lead.
Rulandus: A counting-board, table or tray, etc.
Rulandus: A larger table, etc.
Rulandus: The mire or grease which accumulates on the axle of a wheel.
Rulandus: Unslaked lime.
Rulandus: is the same as Rebis, to wit, the last matter of the nutriments which are absorbed by the body; that is to say, it is the excrement of the bowels.
Rulandus: Albesten, Abesten, and Morago, are Hermetic names for Asbestos.
Rulandus: A cover.
Rulandus: A separation by means of the superior part. It is performed after several manners. In the dry region, where there is less specific gravity, such cleansing can be effected by the hare's foot or like agents. Sometimes we accomplish separation with a feather, with small knives, spatulas, etc. At other times, we purge in a narrow bag, with twigs, and with wooden, iron, and bristly substances.
Rulandus: is exaltation by means of successive lustrations, washing away the impure refuse, and reducing the matter to a pure state. It is also called Imbibition and Cohobationor digestion.
Rulandus: Cleansing.
Rulandus: is Alum; also called Asfor.
Rulandus: is White Lead. The same thing is signified by Alkarad, Almachabar, and Alsiden.
Rulandus: are names of Sulphur.
Absorbent Earth
Chalk, marble, and clays. No specific formulas. Generally carbonates, silicates, and sulfates.
Rulandus: An iron spoon.
Rulandus: is Alum-water; called also Fefcol.
Rulandus: is Vinegaror sour substances.
Rulandus: is Salt; called also Alet.
Rulandus: is the scoria or refuse of Silver.
Rulandus: is Cinnabar or Red Lead; called also Azemasor.
Rulandus: is Soot; called also Araxos.
Rulandus: is Jupiteror Tin; called also Alkain and Alomba.
Rulandus: is Tinsel; called also Aurichalcum, properly Orichalcum, which is the brass of the ancients. Accatem signifies the same.
Rulandus: is Indian tutty; called also Alcordine.
Any substance which is slightly acidor turning sour.
Rulandus: A vessel for vinegaror a cup-shaped vessel, holding as much as would an eggshell.
Acetated Earths, Metals, Etc.
Acetates (C2H3O2).
Acetous Acid
Impure Acetic Acid from vinegar.
Referring to vinegaror to a compound made from vinegar, as in "acetum radicatum."
Rulandus: White vinegar. Acetum also signifies sour wine, and in this sense Acetum Amineum would be sour white wine, wine of Aminaea, which was distinguished for vine culture.
Rulandus: is Philosophical Vinegar, that is, Virgin's Milkor Mercurial Water, in which metals are dissolved. One of its Hermetic names was Sophic Hydor. According to Theophrastus, the Philosophical Vinegar is the Chemist's Vitriol-water, but the Turba states that it is the water of mercury which dissolves gold. Others affirm that Philosophical Vinegar is that which is made from fresh shells of tortoises by sublimation and distillation.
Rulandus: is Radical Vinegaror Vinegar distilled from its proper radix
or matrix. It is also called dissolvent water.
Rulandus: or Radicated Vinegar signifies in some authors that most sharp liquor of vinegar which remains at the bottom of the retort, after the phlegmatic part has been evaporated. It is made by distillation in the retort out of the crystals of the dregs of vinegar. Or good vinegar, made from wine, may be placed in a retort, distilled gently by a moist heat, often poured back upon its caput mortuum, and dissolved in dung, after which it must be finally distilled, when that which is left may be taken and liquefied in a strong fire. The result is radicated vinegar.
Acid Air (Priestley)
Hydrogen Chloride (HCl).
Rulandus: The Agate, first found in Sicily, near the river of that name, and afterwards in other localities, as testifies Pliny, 1. 37 c. 10. There are various species, each bearing separate names: Jaspachates, Ceradhates, Sardachates, Haemachates, Leucachates, Dendrachates, the veins of which are like unto minute trees; Autachates, which, when burnt, gives forth fragrance of myrrh; Coralloachates, distinguished by a golden speckling, after the manner of the sapphire; this variety is found in Crete. Agates are a safeguard against the bite of the spider, and eagles carry them to their nests to defend their fledglings against venomous animals. They allay thirst and strengthen sight. Concerning the rest, consult Pliny in the place cited, who also relates that various impressions of figures appear in agates; in some, for example, may be seen rivers, woods, cattle, beasts of burden, herds, war-chariots, minute statues, and the furniture or ornaments of horses. In particular, he relates (1. 37, c. 1) how Pyrrhus had an agate gem in which could be seen Apollo and the nine Muses, with their insignias. I myself have beheld a gem belonging to a nobleman, which, however, was not a true agate, but when the blemishes had been dispersed, it exhibited a rustic and a complete plough. I found also another at Albion Silicem, near the gate of Tangra, wherein appeared the likeness of a wolf or a lion, near a half-rose, so clearly cut by nature as though the work had been done by a jeweller. Most credible truly are those things of Pliny when writing of the impressions upon this kind of stone.
Acid of Ants
Formic Acid (HCOOH).
Acid, Nitri Phlogistic
See Nitrous Air.
Acid of Amber
Succine Acid (C4H6O4). Also written HOOCCH2CH2COOH  
Acid of Apples
Malic Acid (C4H6O5).
Acid of Arsenic
Arsenic Acid (H3AsO4).
Acid of Barberry
Malic Acid.
Acid of Benzoin
Benzoic Acid (C6H5COOH).
Acid of Borax
Boric Acid (H3BO3).
Acid of Burning Sulphur
Sulfurous Acid (H2SO3).
Acid of Four Spar
Hydrofluoric Acid (mixed usually with silicon fluoride) (HF; SiF4).
Acid of Lemons
Citric Acid (C6H8O7).
Acid of Milk
Lactic Acid (C3H6O3).
Acid of Milk-Sugar
Mucic Acid (COOH(CHOH)4COOH).
Acid of Molybdaena
Molybdic Acid (H2MoO4).
Acid of Nitre
Nitric Acid (HNO3).
Acid of Phosphorus
Phosphoric Acid (H3PO4).
Acid of Salt
Hydrochloric Acid (HCl). (Acidum Salis
Acid of Sea-Salt
Hydrochloric Acid, aloneor in a compound (i.e., the Cl radical).
Acid of Sorrel
Oxalic Acid (COOH COOH).
Acid of Sugar
Oxalic Acid (COOHCOOH). Also written (COOH)2.
Acid of Tamarinds
Tartaric Acid (C4H6O6).
Acid of Tartar
Tartaric Acid.
Acid of Urine
Phosphoric Acid (H3PO4)
Acid of Vinegar
Acetic Acid (CH3COOH).
Acid of Vitriol
Sulfuric Acid (H2SO4)
Acidium Aereum
Carbon Dioxide (CO2).
Acidium Mephiticum
Carbon Dioxide (CO2).
Acidium Pingue
J.F. Meyer's hypothesized "fatty acid."
Acidium Sacchari
Oxalic Acid (COOH COOH).
Acid Vitriolated Tartar
Potassium Hydrogen Sulphate (KHSO4).
Rulandus: Steel.
Rulandus: A lupine, wolf's-beanor horse-bean.
Rulandus: is Red Coral.
Rulandus: Glass.
Rulandus: A needle.
Rulandus: Saltpetre.
Rulandus: in Arabic Subedhig, in Latin Adamas (Pliny, 1. 37, c. 4), the diamond, which is found both apart from gold and in gold, contrary to the opinion of the ancients, who knew it only as native in gold among the metals of Aethiopia. But for the better understanding of this subject, observe the ensuing scheme, which we have elaborated out of Pliny in part, and in part from other authorities. Not found in gold, and of this there are two species.

The Indian diamond, not having its birth in gold, is known by its translucid crystal colour and sex-angular sides; it is either cone-shaped at one end or else it has the form of a lozenge; it is sometimes as large as a hazel. This species is said by Serapion to approximate to the colour of Sal Ammoniac.
The Arabian diamond, likewise not found in gold, is smaller than the preceding.
Native in the most Perfect Gold.

I. The Greek stone called Cenchron, because it is the size of a millet seed.
II. Macedonian; generated in gold of Philippi; like the seed of cucumber in size.
III. Cyprian; found in Cyprus; approaching brass in colour; most efficacious in healing.
IV. Having the splendour of iron sideritis (that is, according to Pliny, a precious stone; according to others it is loadstone ; and again it is the plant ironwort); surpassing the others in weight, but differing from them in nature; can be broken by blows, and pierced by another diamond.
The two last are degenerate, and scarcely deserve their name.
The best diamonds are impervious to blows on an anvil, which they repel, so that even the anvil bursts asunder, while they themselves leap away invulnerable. And inasmuch as the diamond is indescribably hard, it contemns and conquers fire, nor has ever been consumed thereby. Whence, from its indomitable life and strength, it has the name *** among the Greeks.

That herb which is mentioned by Pliny (1. 24, c. 17), which cannot be torn up, was also called adamant. The stone, however, can be shattered by the fleshor rather by the warm blood of a young goat; more especially when the goat has first drunk wine or eaten rock parsley and mountain skirwort. For the above reasons, diamonds are much in request among lapidaries for cutting and shaping gems and other substances, for which purpose they ought to be mounted only in iron. Other metals they will by no means tolerate, while by lead, wonderful to say, they are themselves dissolved.
Furthermore, the diamond is so hostile to the loadstone that it will not permit iron to be attracted in its neighbourhood, and if a magnet at close quarters should have attracted a piece of iron, the approach of a diamond will cause it to lose its hold.
In short, the diamond binds the magnet and strips it of its virtues. Oh, how wonderful is God in all His works! For the rest, the diamond irritates venomous animals, drives away frenzies, lemures, incubi, and succubi; it makes men strong and lively, and is for this reason called anachitis (that is, anancitis

It prevails against contentions and quarrels, and cures viscous fluxes. Consult Serapion and Evax. Some will have that the diamond is cold and dry in the fourth degree, others, on the contrary, that it is hot and dry, inasmuch as it is mixed with warming medicines. Did the matter receive investigation, doubtless diamonds would be found in our mines, as they have been found in times past: witness Pliny on the authority of Metrodorus Scepsius. In Bohemia stones of excellent quality are still seen, which surpass Oriental diamonds in shape and lustre. Consult Solinus, De Adamante, c. 55. The ancient astrologers referred the diamond to the Moon.
Rulandus: A four-sided diamond point.
Rulandus: A flat square diamond.
Rulandus: A kind of bright stone.
Rulandus: A species of tartar; a kind of wine-stone or kidney-stone. (Wine-stone, Germ. = Tartar.)
Rulandus: According to some this is a marine flesh, a spongy growth, a froth or efflorescence, a congealed saliva having birth in sea-shallows, especially of Cappadocia and Galatia. The Indian species is found among reeds and cane-brakes on the shore. It has similar qualities to the substance called Halcyon. It was termed formerly Pericalamite and Calamoch. Some physicians make use of these ridiculous substances while they despise more noble things. They have even gone so far as to invent obscure names for it, which would be a puzzle to Oedipus himself. Some having written as follows: Take the fat of the deformed child and the tears of the vine of Dionysius. Who shall understand this save Oedipus? Who shall quickly interpret the deformed child to be the she-bear, and the gum of the vine of Dionysius to be the gum of the ivy? The Adarces here referred to must be distinguished from the true Adarces or Oysters. It is a sort of thick, salt scum which collects about reeds in marshy places. Its proper name is Adarca, but this Rulandus confuses with the oyster, and says that its power in diseases is declared by Dioscorides (1. 5, c. 84) and by Pliny (1. 32, c. 6), who represents it as coming into existence around tender reeds amidst the spume of fresh water and sea water, and accredits it with caustic virtues.
Rulandus: is Orpiment.
Rulandus: is the spume or foam of sea water.
Rulandus: To augment; but also used as an equivalent of temperare, to combine in due proportion, to keep within bounds.
Rulandus: Addition, increase.
Rulandus: Sour milk.
Rulandus: Fresh skimmed milk.
Rulandus: is our interior and invisible man, who raises up in our minds the image or archetypes of all those things which our visible and exterior man copies and forms with his hands. Each works after his own nature, the invisible thin; unseen, the sensible, under form sensible, those things which are within the dominion of the senses.
Rulandus: A fluid in its final distillation.
Rulandus: with its equivalents Aiohenec and Altohonec, signifies a plate.
Rulandus: Another term for sour milk.
Rulandus: Milk.
Rulandus: Mercury.
Rulandus: The tortoise, also tortoise shell.
Rulandus: Various terms for "mixed with lime", slaked.
Rulandus: Ammoniac.
Rulandus: Earth.
Small, circular vessels with a necked opening and a spout opposite. They were connected between the distilling head and the receiver.
Rulandus: Water in which red-hot iron has been plunged.
Rulandus: Young man.
Rulandus: A weight of four pounds.
Rulandus: Metallic salt, Cappadocian salt.
Rulandus: Garden Saffron.
Rulandus: is green atrament ; also blue sulphate of copper.
Rulandus: A kind of stone.
Rulandus: Signifies urine, but also lotion, fountain, etc.
A union or combination into one.
Rulandus: Against the grain, literally, against the direction of a current; hence, opposition in general.
Ad Siccum
To dryness, as in evaporation to dryness.
Rulandus: Equals breath, breeze, spirit, wind, weather.
Rulandus: Natural copper stones.
1. Black scissile copper ore in which are natural plates of copper.
2. Ore containing natural green chrysocolla.
3. Ore containing natural blue chrysocolla.
4. Scissile ores in which is interspersed copper of a golden, ruddy, blue, purple, violetor black colour.
5. Scissile ore, having seams of gold-coloured copper.
6. Ore containing seams of copper like the purest lead ore.
7. Cuprine scissile slate, burnt in the open air.
8. Burnt.
9. Burnt in the open air, afterwards melted out, and the dross separated.
10. Small globular slate-stones, perfectly circular, hard and heavy, of different sizes. Also found among copper quartz, with an ashy surface, as if composed of fine sand; if broken with a hammer, they are like silver or ash-coloured pyrites inside. Sometimes copper and some times silver is melted out of them.
11. Very hard, small pebbles, showing ruddy in black; found in scissile copper ore, like the kidneys of animals; when broken, they are of a deceptive colour, showing rich cuprine hues, but if searched with fire they possess no metallic quality.
12. Sterile ore, found beneath copper ore, showing white in ash-colour.
13. Primary masses melted out of rude copper.
14. Secondary, in which silver or gold are still present, which are sold to masters of laboratories for the separation of the silver and copper.
15. Crumbling or spongy masses, out of which, when lead is added, silver can be extracted.
16. Masses of silver and lead from which copper has been separated.
17. Copper containing silver combined with lead.
18. Copper, of fine quality, free from torrefied, crumblingor cloven masses.
19. Copper masses free from all other metal.
20. Sharp-pointed ore stones produced in torrefying masses of crumbling ore.
21. Copper nuggets full of sharp points. Also layers of sharp-pointed copper.
22. Sharp-pointed nuggets of copper and lead, produced in the fusion of masses of ore.
23. Sharp-pointed pieces from nuggets which have been once subject to fusion.
24. Fused copper, containing gold.
25. Fused copper, containing silver. .
26. Fused copper, containing both gold and silver.
27. Tinged with magnesia. White copper.
28. Tinged with metallic cadmia. Yellow copper.
29. Gold-coloured copper.
30. Flattened copper wire out of which garlands or wreaths are made.
31. Copper showing flaxen colour in red colour.
32. Copper showing swarthy in red.
33. Copper tinctures with gold-colour by chemical art. Alchemical gold.
34. Gilded copper.
35. Copper coloured silver by chemical art. Alchemical silver.
36. Copper mixed with white lead.
37. Cremated copper.
38. Copper fused with white lead. Manufactured bell-metal.
39. Copper alloy, containing equal parts of copper and silver. Cobalt.
40. Copper fused in iron pipes. Finger-shaped pieces of copper. Used in testing.
41. Copper reduced to granules; vulgarly called granulated copper.
42. Flower of copper, given off from incandescent masses of copper; in appearance like millet seed.
43. A more minute kind, given off from molten crucibles, like flying poppy seed.
44. True flower of copper, given off spontaneously from red-hot crucibles. Very fine Cyprian copper dust.
45. Baked copper, hardened with hammers.
46. Scales of copper, beaten out by the hammer.
47. Most pure scales of copper, with which potters colour their vases. Brown copper, found useful in all coppersmiths' work.
48. Copper melted into the form of globules. Coarsely granulated copper.
49. Copper filings.
50. Plates of Copper, called sometimes by an Italian name, batitura. Sheet copper.
51. Copper wire. .
52. Gilt copper wire.
53. Silvered copper wire.
54. Copper wire overlaid with white lead.
55. Black refuse, separated in the first melting, from copper ore.
56. Metal extracted from copper ore which is once fused and separated from its refuse.
57. The same, but melted up to the sixth time, then finally baked, and separated from its first and second refuse.
58. Yellow copper thread. Copper wire.
59. The first recrement of red colour is the material of those pitchers out of which we usually drink mustor unfermented wine.
60. The second recrement, mixed with brass or lead, is called, in our vernacular, stone, and is again added to the metals in the second melting when they begin to flow rapidly.
61. The third recrement remains in the furnace, when the copper, in which silver is still present, flows out. Out of this recrement, when pounded and prepared for another melting down, iron is extracted.
62. Recrements separated from torrefied copper masses.
63. The first recrements of copper are light.
64. The second are heavier.
65. The third are heaviest of all, and black, blue, purple, and red in colour. On the surface of the Islebian mountains there is found a red earthor red ore, with which the copper ore of the mines is mixed in digging out. Beneath this there are eleven other species of stone, before the object of mining is attained, i.e., before the copper veins are reached.
1. Granite. Hyalomite.
1A. A hard, rude stone, of earthy colour.
2. Another not so hard, and of ashen hue.
3. Smokestone. Smoky topaz.
3A. A third harder and rougher, and of colour similar to the first.
4. Zechstein, permian limestone.
4A. A fourth, showing swarthy in ash-colour, but more solid than the second.
5. Smoky topaz.
5A. A fifth, ashen, hard, and rough.
6. Fulgurite.
6A. Another, like to the fourth.
7. Another similar to the second, but softer.
8. Another blacker than the seventh, small, and harder.
9. A ninth kind, showing ashen in white, soft, and may be broken like marl with a penknife.
10. Another of ash-colour, hard and solid as marble.
11. A layer of black horny slate.
11. Showing more black in ash-colour than all the others.
12. Scissile Islebian stone, dark ash-colour, rich in copper. Slate-stone, rich in copper.
Aerated Alkali
Any alkali Carbonate (e.g., K2CO3).
"Aerated" Compounds (Bergman)
Carbonates (CO32).
Aerated Lime
Calcium Carbonate (CaCO3).
Aerated Water
Water containing dissolved carbon dioxide.
Aer Hepaticus
Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S).
Aerial Acid
Carbon Dioxide (CO2). Which forms Carbonic Acid, in aqueous solution
Rulandus: That is, verdigris.
Rulandus: Ordinary copper
Rulandus: Metaphorically so called, was termed by the Greeks, Chalckou Anthos, and is misnamed Calcantum, that is, vitriol, the shoemakers' black of the Latins, the ignorant believed of old, being deceived by the similarity of the terms. But Flower of Copper differs among the ancients and moderns. For the ancients, as appears, denominated Flower of Copper those purple globules which rise suddenly when the melted copper runs from the furnace, and is purged from impurity by the sudden sprinkling of clear water. Of this kind of Flower of Copper Dioscorides speaks (1. 5, c. 43), and enumerates its medicinal powers and virtues. Among the moderns, however, the Flower of Copper signifies verdigris. This distinction should be remembered in comparing ancient and recent authors. It should also be borne in mind that formerly they intermingled copper scales and Flower of Copper, whence a new substance was developed which was called Lepis, as appears out of Pliny. At the present day Flos Aeris is not included in the Pharmacopia. Concerning its virtues Pliny says (1. 34. c 11): The Flower of Copper is useful to medicine; verily there is not a mineral throughout all the mines of so useful a nature as it is. It purgeth the stomach, strengthens the eyes, remedies hardness of hearing, stayeth bleeding at the nose.

There are two kinds of Copper Scales, namely, dense and light. Of the first Dioscorides treats (1. 5, c. 44). It is called Copper Slag by the Germans, but this, which is broad and thin, is produced from copper by hammering. Dioscorides (l. c.) avers that which is beaten from bars in the forges of Cyprus, and called Helitinor Hammered, to be the best, but that which is beaten from poor and vulgar copperor from white copper, is wholly to be condemned. He leaches further the virtues and the lustration of Aeris Squama. He makes mention in addition of Stomoma, the fine scales which fly off in hammering.

There is another stomoma which is the same as the lighter variety of Aeris Squama, and is mentioned, not by Dioscorides, but by Pliny. It is called Copperborn by the Germans. And there is yet another stomoma which is, as it were, slack from the ore and is pierced easily. Yet again, there is that stomoma which is ferrum purgatum, purissimum, our chalybs, which is steel.

It was Pliny (1. 34, c. 2) who first taught that coarse copper scales differed from Flower of Copper, when he said: Now these scales come by being driven and smitten off from those bars which they use to forge of the said masses and lumps of copper, and all these most commonly are found in the Cyprian forges; herein only is the difference, that the aforesaid scales are driven forcibly from the masses of copper, whereas the flower of verdigris fails off by itself. And yet there is a second kind of these scales, more fine and subtle than any other, to wit, driven and smitten from the very outside and uppermost part of the bar, and this they call Stomoma. He adds that both the one and the other are calcined either over earthen or brazen vessels, and afterwards washed. Finally, he also avers that the scales made of the white metal are indefinitely less efficacious. But neither the scales nor the flower are used by our doctors as they were in the time of Pliny.
Aerugo (Aeruca) (Rust of Copper)
See Verdigris.
Rulandus: or Verdigris, which the moderns, as we have shown, contradictorily call Flower of Copper, is twofold, natural and artificial, the former being found in metallic Cypriot stones, having some proportion of copper; upon these the verdigris bursts out as in bloom, and this, though small in quantity, is the best, and is also found in our copper mines. Dioscorides (1. 5, c. 45) mentions its varieties, with their proportionate worth, and the manner in which they are sophisticated.

Concerning artificial verdigris, which is produced upon the surface of copper when the metal has become sufficiently green, this is of threefold kind, namely:
1. The smooth or scraped, whereof Dioscorides speaks firstly, and shows after what manner it is made.
2. The vermiculatedor worm-eaten verdigris, which is also duplex, that which is mineral and that which is made.
The former is the better, and is scraped by itself from the copperstone, upon which see Pliny (l. 34, c. 12), who disputes at great length as to whether it be a species of vitriolor chalchitis itself. Great indeed is the knowledge of verdigris, of the natural above all, of Flower of Copper, of Chrysocolla, and of Vitriol, that is, true Chalchitis. Do thou, most excellent reader, well consider it, and judge the erudition of Pliny. Vermiculated verdigris, of the manufactured kind, and the way of making it, are taught by Dioscorides and by Pliny.

3. The third species of manufactured verdigris is goldsmiths' verdigris, which is also treated of by Dioscorides, and this is Santerna, which is used for alum. Some call it Tinckar or Arabian Borax. Goldsmiths' verdigris is nothing else but Chrysocolla, on which consult Pliny (1. 33, c. 5; also 1. 34, c. 11 and 12).

All these species answer to Burnt Copper; they are astringent, they reduce, and heat, which is the case with all kinds of copper rust.
After what manner the rest are burnt, consult Dioscorides. In our own day similar species of copper rust are largely manufactured in Spain.

The Arabians, if I mistake not, call all the above enumerated species by the name Zinckar; and these are the species according to Pliny, Dioscorides, and others. But if we consider deeply, there are some which have not been distinguished by them, and are set forth in the following tabulation:

Verdigris or Copper Rust is:
Scraped: Natural / Manufactured (1. Scraped; 2. Vermiculate
Rulandus: Mined / Manufactured; 3. Goldsmiths?.
Scissile: Natural, i.e., copper-green. Gold-gluten / Manufactured, goldsmiths? green, scraped, manufactured copper, green.
The remaining species are distinguished thus:
1. Verdigris, colour of green copper; things dyed with green copper rust are so named by Martial.
2. Natural verdigris found on copper quartz.
3. A variety from Satberg, of leaden colour, found in rude copper ore.
4. Verdigris found on pure solid copper.
5. Manufactured verdigris.
6. Sublimed or distilled verdigris, used by painters.
Rulandus: Burnt copper according to Dioscorides (l. 5, c. 42) is obtained by arranging alternate layers of copper bars with salt and sulphuror alum, in an earthen vessel. The same author enumerates other methods, and burnt copper is made in our own day out of copper, sulphur, and salt. Dioscorides praises the aes ustum of Memphis and Cyprus. It is astringent, desiccating, restrictive; it reduces, draws out, and cleanses; and it heals ulcers. It is serviceable in complaints of the eye; it is a good emetic, when mixed with honey. It is cleansed like Cadmia, and is regarded as hot and dry in the fourth degree. The scum or excrement of copper, prepared after the same manner, has the same virtues, in a weaker degree. Consult Dioscorides as above.
The other species of Copper Ore and Copper are as follows:
1. Pure native copper.
2. Native red copper, unalloyed with other metals, found, clean and solid, in its own mines, in the Duchy of Mansfield.
3. Mined copper, found in its own veins.
4. Pure copper mined from argentiferous veins at Scheberg.
5. Red Mansfield copper, which contains silver.
6. Red native copper of Suacensis in the Rhetian Alps, which contains gold within it.
7. Copper of a chestnut brown colour, which adheres like a thin plate to the hard stone. Solid copper.
8. Of the ordinary colour, in a violet fluor-spar.
9. Of the ordinary colour, intermixed with stony substance.
10. Of its own colour, cleaving to hard stone, which has the glow of hot
11. Of its own colour, cleaving to a scissile stone. The German context speaks of a red copper mixed with sulphur on a slate bed; ruddy, solid copper.
12. Thin shavings of copper, in a white flint.
13. Veinlets or fibres of copper in a bright, ruddy stone; a preparation of a copper ore in a hard stone.
14. A rich vein of copper; a speedy process for pure copper.
15. Rough, native, impure copper.
16. Pure solid copper of Moravia.
17. Natural yellow copper, gold-coloured copper, cleaving to brittle Mansfield stone.
18. Blue copper, cleaving to brittle stone.
19. Copper, entirely blue.
20. Brownish or violet copper, cleaving to brittle stone.
21. White copper, similar to rude white silver, in a brittle stone; a rich white copper ore.
22. Black copper ore.
23. Copper ore so abundantly mixed with brittle stone that 100 lbs. contains 40 lbs. of copper.
24. A natural solid copper of several colours, distinguished into zones of gold, purple, saffron, flaxen, green, and blue.
25. Friberg copper, allied to black lead, of so many excellent colours that they shine as if they were transparent.
26. Copper native in white lead, having the brightness of polished gold. The German version reads, born in black lead, as crystallised tin-ore.
Aer Urinosum
Ammonia (NH3).
Aes cyprium
Cyprian Brass or Copper.
Aethiops Mercuriales
See Athiops Mineralis.
Aethiops Mineralis (Aethiops Mercuriales)
Black Mercuric Sulphide (H2S).
Rulandus: This name is given to a subterranean, invisible, and sulphureous fire which burns stones into coals similar to asphalt; they are full of resin and bitumen, and some nations use them instead of coals or wood, especially spurious sophisticators of metals. Formerly, these subterraneous fires were to be seen in several places, as, for example, that called Aetna in Sicily, and another in the Neapolitan Kingdom not far from Naples. In ancient times the men of those days, wonderstruck as to what could be the cause of these fires, and after great investigation being unable to assign it, became so desperate that one among the most celebrated philosophers, physicists, and doctors, Empedocles, cast himself headlong into the flames, choosing to be vanquished by shame rather than by ignorance. Again Caius Plinius delivered himself to suffocation from the smoke of this fire. Oh insane talents of men, who, whilst they will be ignorant of nothing, have attempted no labours, so that they can know nothing, and have nevertheless borne a shameful death, esteeming it better not to live than not to know that which at the same time they knew to be transitory! Housewives, when they have done cooking, shut up the fire in their grate, so that there may be no entrance of air, by which means the fire dies out, for it can live only in air. But if a draught be admitted before it is quite extinguished, the flame will revive. In the same way we must regard volcanoes, whose fires originate in the earth's centre, which holds them like a grate. They are the air-holes of the earth, by which the central fires have their nourishment from the atmosphere, and without which they would be extinguished like the fires in a grate. (An invisible sulphureous fire in mountains, which turns stones into coal.)
Item. All fused ores are understood by the name Aethna.
Rulandus: are igneous spiritsor spirit-men, burning in the midst of flames. They appear in various modes and manners, like burning fires, live circular coalsor fiery globes; they are also seen amidst the sulphureous eruptions of volcanoes.
Rulandus: are Eagle-stones, so called on account of their colour and their virtue, for without them can no eagle bring forth. For the Eagle-stone alleviates parturition. It is also called Lapis Erodialis and Lapis Aegreileius. It is a gem of several species. The first is the Pregnant-stone described by Dioscorides. When it is shaken another stone can be heard rattling in its stomach. It is of globular shape, is hollow, like the oak-apple, and bears another stone within it; this species is found in the vicinity of the Saale and the Elbe, and especially in that district which we now call Steuermarch. Very great virtues are possessed by this species; in particular, it relieves the sense of heaviness experienced by women before child-birth if the uterus be rubbed with it. The second species of Eagle-stone is that which is filled with earth, i.e., with white or saffron clay, and this is the Geodes (full of earth, earthy), a precious stone mentioned by Dioscorides. Varieties of this sort, containing earth or clay, are found at Dresden and in Saxony. I have myself seen a species, containing a saffron clay, on the banks of the Elbe, and another, full of white clay, is met with in the vicinity of the Saale. The third species is filled with water, and perspires in a warm place. It is called Enydros; hence those lines of the poet:
"The Enidros pours forth perpetual tears, Which spring like water from a fountain full ".
Pliny (1. 37, c. 11) and Solinus (c. 40) make special mention of this species. Says Pliny: The Enydros is always perfectly round; it is white, and of little weight, but when moved water is seen to flow within it like the liquid in eggs. And Solinus: The Enydros exudes moisture, as if a spring of water were contained within it. The fourth species of Eagle-stone is full of sand and tiny pebbles. The fifth is full of chelonitis, the sixth of a white lime; this is the variety which I discovered by the Elbe; it was of oblong shape, very hard, and honeycombed on its surface. I met also with another species separated from the matrix and of a peculiar shape similar to the variety described by Pliny (1. 10, c. 3), called Gagates by other writers, said to be found in the nests of eagles, especially in those of the bearded eagle, and termed the Pregnant-stone. When struck, or shaken, another stone can be heard rattling within it. It is not consumed by fire, a quality it possesses in common with the true Gagates (this is a species of bitumen), whence the identity of name. Those Eagle-stones, which are taken from the nests of eagles have the greatest medicinal virtue. Pliny also pretends (11. 36, c. 27) to distinguish two kinds of Eagle-stones which are found in the nests of these birds, a male and female, which are both necessary to the hatching of their eggs. After the same manner, the eagle places an agate under its unfledged young to protect them from poisonous reptiles. Pliny otherwise distinguishes four species of Eagle-stone.
1. The small soft African eagle-stone, containing soft white clay, as in a womb. It is easily crumbled to pieces, and has been regarded as feminine. It is found at the present day full of yellow clay, and is the Geodis of Dioscorides.
2. A variety from Cyprus, similar to the African, but larger and broader, globular in shape, soft on its surface, easily crumbled, and containing fine sand and pebbles. Varieties of this sort are also found pregnant with lime and conchylii.
3. Found near Leucadia, in the island of Taphus, whence it is called Taphinsius; it is met with in rivers, is white, and round in shape. In its womb it contains the stone called Callimus, and it is exceedingly soft.
4. A hard Eagle-stone like the oak-apple, found in Arabia, and believed to be masculine; it contains a reddish stone, also hard, and is much praised by Dioscorides. This also is familiar to us, and has been previously described.
All species of aetites assist parturition and prevent abortion, as also Pliny witnesses (1. 36, c. 21). They are to be distinguished from the Echite which is an herb of the clematis genus; from Echites, a stone spotted like a viper; and from Echitis, a variety of the last. Consult Pliny as above, Solinus, c. 40, Serapion, Albertus, Rhasis, and others.
The eagle-stone is also classified as follows:
1. African male aetitis, very hard, black and red in colour, containing a white crumbling earth.
2. Feminine, from Hildesheimer, mud-coloured, with yellow ochre adhering to it. This species contains a hard, mud-coloured earth.
3. Another kind, with a loose stone inside it, which sounds when shaken.
4. Hard, ruddy aetites, having an iron-grey stone.
5. Another, from Motteschanus, shaped like the human head, round, and very hard, having quadrangular, crystalline fluors like adamant.
6. A concave, iron-grey stone, found in iron ore, and containing nothing but air. The German Druse.
Generally, any substance in gaseous state.
Air (Priestley)
A gaseous substance which could not be liquified by cold.
Air, Dephlogisticated
Oxygen (O2).
Air, Fixed
Carbon Dioxide (CO2).
Air, Hepatic
Hydrogen Sulphide (H2S).
Air, Inflammable
Hydrogen (H2).
Air, Marine Acid
Hydrogen Chloride (HCl).
Air, Mephitic
Carbon Dioxide (CO2).
Air, Phlogisticated
Nitrogen (N2).
Air, Vital
Oxygen (O2).
Air of Flour Spar
Hydrofluoric Acid, HF,  gas (usually with Silicon Fluoride).
Air of Vitriol
Sulphur Dioxide (SO2).
Rulandus: is Atrament.
Rulandus: is Froth of Nitre, in Arabic Baurach; or it is that pseudo-Froth of Nitre which is called Glass-gall by the Germans; or it is the metallic salt called Cappadocius and Gemma.
Rulandus: is Soul.
Rulandus: is Froth or Spume.
Rulandus: is Glass.
Rulandus: Mid south-west.
Rulandus: is Venus.
Rulandus: is frothy, spumous, etc.
Rulandus: is Minium, Red Lead, Vermilion.
Rulandus: is White Lead.
Rulandus: is Verdigris.
Rulandus: is our Lead, the unclean body.
Rulandus: is Prepared Calx.
Rulandus: Names of Calx.
Rulandus: is a metallic vase of copperor iron, two feet high, and of about the same width. On the top there is a cover which fits it exactly, and is made in the following manner: A plate of copper is made in exact correspondence with the capacity of the ahenum (for the sake of convenience some affirm that a wooden cover may be substituted), and of circular shape, in the centre of which (when the ahenum is intended for the reception of only one cuppingglass) a little door is cut, of the exact size of the vase which is to be placed in the ahenum, and out of which at the same time it can project a certain distance. On one or the other side, and near the bottom of the ahenum, another door must be made, through which the heat can flow under, and more water be supplied to make up for evaporation. The use of this covered ahenum is manifold in the operations of the baths.
Rulandus: is Rock-Saltor Muriate of Soda.
Rulandus: is Arsenical Sulphur. Also the Eagle.
Rulandus: is Lead.
Rulandus: are names of Sulphur.
Rulandus: is a sharp-pointed stone. Hence aconite, an herb which grows on rocks, derives the name it bears. There is another sharp-pointed stone, with which knives and other instruments are sharpened, and it is called Whetstone. Of this we have several species-black, white, yellow, and one which is of a very deep black. Dioscorides (1. 5, c. 93) signalises the uses of the Naxian Stone which is worn away by the sharpening of instruments thereon. The species under notice is also called Heraclean and Lydian Stone ; it is the German Touch-stone, which is known to our goldsmiths and is called Coticula by Pliny (1. 33, c. 8). That stone which is found in Misnia, and is now used by book-binders, is also a species of cos-stone. There is, moreover, a variety which is of green colour, and is called Eye-stone, or Oil-stone, because instruments of various kinds are sharpened upon it after it has been lubricated with oil. There are additional species which the reader himself will be able to recall to his mind without further enumeration
Rulandus: Lydian Stone, Grind-stone, Clinthy Slate, etc.
Rulandus: Alabaster, from the town of that name in Upper Egypt, and also from Damascus of Syria. It is a species of marble, and is familiar to the Venetians. There are three kinds; the first is white and shining, and is that white alabaster of which in times gone by it was usual to make the images of saints and -the monuments of the departed. The second species has black spots. The third is white and ruddy, and is hence called Onyx, ruddy Alabaster, because it has the tint of human flesh. It is the species referred to by Dioscorides when he says: Alabaster, also called Onyx, when burnt with pitch or resin, removes indurations of the body. For the various uses of the onyx, and concerning the vessels and boxes for ointment which are made of it, consult Dioscorides (1. 2). At the present time there are two species found in Germany, in Cheruscis, not far from Northusia, and in Saxony, near Hildesheim. Pliny (1. 36, c. 7 and 8) says: Alabaster is used for vases containing unguents, and is medicinally valuable in plasters to be placed over burns and scalds. He also informs us that its native places are Thebes of Egypt and Damascus of Syria. There is, however, a useless and inferior species which comes from Cappadocia, a country of Asia between the Black Seaor rather Pontus, and Cilicia. Consult also the same writer in the thirteenth chapter of his thirteenth book of the History of the World.
Rulandus: is Lead
Rulandus: Salt of Alkali.
Rulandus: is a caltrop.
Rulandus: is a species of white lead.
Rulandus: are all names of Lead. See Abam, etc.
Rulandus: is a ruddy stone.
Rulandus: according to some is an oven of the alchemists; according to others, it is Charcoal.
Rulandus: is burnt Copper Ore.
Rulandus: is Ammoniac.
Rulandus: is semi-vitrified protoxide of lead.
Rulandus: is Nitric Salt.
Rulandus: is Salt of Wine.
Rulandus: is a stone of salt of milk.
Rulandus: is Arsenic.
Rulandus: Whiteness; white ashes left by calcination.
Rulandus: is White Copper or Metallic Ore.
Rulandus: is Quicklime.
Rulandus: is Galbanum, a disputed substance, supposed to be the resinous sap of an umbelliferous plant in Syria. It is referred to by Pliny and Suetonius.
Rulandus: That is, Sublimated.
Rulandus: is Pitch from the bark of the yew. I believe it to be a substance from which ink is made.
Rulandus: is Urine.
Rulandus: is Goldsmith's Brick.
Rulandus: Names of White Lead.
Rulandus: is Terebinth, Turpentine. It has other arbitrary names, such as, Albuhen, Altilibat, Albotra, Bora, Debutum, Helcabatan, Helkaboni, Helcalibat, Helcalidar, Kytram.
Rulandus: White Lead.
Rulandus: Pearl-white.
Rulandus: is White Copper.
Rulandus: is White Atrament; a contradictory designation because atramentum is essentially a black liquid.
Rulandus: Symbolical principle of the Chemists. It is the salt derived from the ashes of any substance without the limes of the bodies, and it inheres in all substances whether aqueous or fiery. It may be called Salt of Ashesor Salt of Limestone.
Alumina (Al2O3).
Alcali Volatil 
Ammonium Hydroxide.
Rulandus: is Sour Milk, otherwise Mercury.
Rulandus: is prepared Mercury; some will have that it is tartar ; but the special meaning of any writer may be judged easily by the description of his preparation.
Rulandus: Mercury prepared as a medicine for the liver.
Rulandus: according to Avicenna, are long slender plants, knotted like reeds, which are used as spears by the Arabs. Some also understand it to be the Guaiacumor Tree of Life of America.
Rulandus: is Sulphur. Called also Alneric, Anerit, Aneric.
Rulandus: is the separation of the impure from the purer substance.
Rulandus: is Oil of Juniper, Liquid Pitch, Arsenic purified by
Rulandus: is also Oil of Juniper, but especially the dregs left after distillation.
Rulandus: is Antimony ; called also Alcofol, Alfacio.
Rulandus: is Sour Milk.
Rulandus: is a most subtle powder.
Rulandus: is Stybium or Antimony.
Rulandus: (sometimes termed Distilled Wine) is thus called when every superfluity of wine has been so purged away that the whole is consumed and neither dregs nor moisture remain in the retort. The most subtle powder that can be made. If alcohol of wine be added, it is rectified, distilled wine.
Alcohol Sulphuris 
Carbon Disulfide, CS2; not an alcohol at all, but a volatile liquid that contains Sulfur.
Usually spirit of wine (CH3CH2OH) (sometimes any very fine powder).
Rulandus: is crushing or corrosion.
Rulandus: is Vinegar.
Rulandus: is Aurichalcum, i.e., Brass, Bronze.
Rulandus: has been most incongruously interpreted by some writers to be a powder ground to extraordinary fineness by a brass or iron mortar; but their error is made sufficiently plain by the fact that Paracelsus speaks in many places of alcool of wine, which he uses for rectified Aqua fortis, and this has nothing in common with a powder. The alcool of any bodies whatever is therefore nothing else but the purer and cleaner part separated from the impure. As regards the Paracelsian Alcool of Antimony, it is nothing else, according to this author, than antimony not merely ground with pestle and mortar, but exalted into its volatile condition without change in the natural colour. And it is needful that this should be done by the exclusive conduct and guidance of fire and heat, in such a manner that after it has been ground in the vulgar fashion, it shall be disintegrated further by sublimations, which are the philosophical pestle and mortar. Paracelsus also teaches elsewhere that such sublimation is to be performed without a caput mortuum, i.e., without leaving a residuum. It is further certain that no refuse must be present before sublimation. This sublimation of stibium is wholly indispensableor frustrated energy and vain labour will be spent upon the flowers of antimony. Most of those who have attempted to analyze the preparation of Paracelsian substances have failed over this arcanum. By vulgar trituration the substances evaporate into white smoke, and it is easier to ascend into heaven than to produce in this way the citrine or ruby flowers, as they have proved to their own cost. The operation is not vulgar and the philosophical artifice is known to few. But it is made known to the Sons of the Doctrine. The sublimation is performed by a carefully tempered fire, so that the powder of antimony may be liquefied as little as possible, but at the same time may ascend until the flower of the powder is seen sticking to the walls of the furnace.
Rulandus: is Copper, burnt till it is fine as powder.
Rulandus: is a kind of stone having spar like silver. Called also Altores.
Rulandus: is Crude Butter. Called also Alumbair.
Rulandus: are all names for Sulphur.
Rulandus: is Vitriol.
Rulandus: is Mercury.
Rulandus: is three-footed. Cf. Tripod.
Rulandus: is a gem mentioned by Pliny (1. 37, c. 10), which is like crystal or clear water; and he shows that this crystalline substance, which is as large as a horse bean, is found in the gizzard of poultry, or, as Albertus has it, of a castrated cock. It is found after the bird has attained the age of four years. It renders the possessor rich and of warlike aspect. And they report that Milo of Crotona was made invincible by such an Alectoria. It conciliates girls and quenches thirst. See also Solinus, etc.
Rulandus: is Flower of Salt.
Rulandus: is Burnt Lead.
Rulandus: is Mercury.
A type of distillation apparatus.
Rulandus: or Capitellum (helmet) is a vessel set over the retort to receive and collect vapours.
The Alembic is of two kinds, beaked or curved, and without beak. The first transmits the resolved vapours by a channel or neck to the receiving vessel. The second, which is without a beak or conduit, is used in sublimations, and in some cases is pierced at the top for the passage of the rising vapours.
Rulandus: is Salt of Mercuryor Philosophical Salt, Salt of Art, and Key of Art.
Alembroth, Salt of
A double Chloride of Mercury and Ammonium, Hg2(NH4)2Cl4.H2O; See White Precipitate
Rulandus: Dessicated Alembroth, is by some called Salt of Tartar, the Magistery of Magisteries.
Rulandus: is compounded Saltor manufactured Salt.
Rulandus: or Altingat, is Flower of Copper.
A remedy or preservative against poison.
Rulandus: is a medicine alchemically prepared.
Rulandus: is the washing of lead.
Rulandus: is Distillation.
Rulandus: is Dross of Gold.
Rulandus: is ashen.
Rulandus: is Burnt Copperor Plates of Venus-Copperplate.
Rulandus: is Sal Ammoniac. Among its other Hermetic names are Salmiax, Alacap, Alorap, Alfol, Alisteles, Alcob, Azonec, Anoxadic, Anacab, Andex,
Aquila, Butrum, Alizeles.
Rulandus: is Brick, burnt Clay ; also Earthenware.
Rulandus: is impure Protoxide of Zinc.
Rulandus: is a reed, according to the German context, but it is properly sea-weed.
Rulandus: is Nitreor Saltpetre.
Algaroth, Powder of
Antimony Oxychloride, SbOCl, an emetic named after its inventor, a Vittorio Algarotti.
Rulandus: Coals.
Rulandus: is Lime.
Alicant Kelp
Crude Sodium Carbonate (Na2CO3).
Rulandus: is Confection, Composition.
Rulandus: is a sand found in auriferous metals, out of which lead is extracted.
Rulandus: is cold and dry earth. It is called in Arabic Boneza and Tinckar.
Arles calls it Salmiac.
Rulandus: is Sal Ammoniac.
1,2-Dihydroxyanthraquinone, C14H8O4, a red dye long extracted from Rubia tinctorium (madder), synthetically prepared from Anthracene in the 19th century.
Alizarin , Black
Naphtharazine, 5,8-dihydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone, C10H6O4, a black dye.
Alizarin , Blue (Anthracene blue)
A Dihydroxyanthraquinone Quinoline, C17H9O4.
Alizarin , Bordeaux (Brown)
1,2,3-trihydroxyanthraquinone, C14H8O5, a dye derived from anthraquinone
Alizarin , Red
Alizarin Sodium Sulfonate, NaC14H7O7S, the Sodium Salt of the Sulfonic Acid of Alizarin; an acid-base indicator that changes from red to yellow as the pH is raised through 5.5
Alizarin , Yellow
Sodium p-Nitraniline Salicylate, C13H10NO5, an acid-base indicator that changes from yellow to purple as the pH is raised through 11.1
Alk. Min. Vitriol
Sodium Sulphate (Na2SO4).
An alchmeical term invented by Paracelsus to denote a universal solvent.
Alkahest Glauber
See Fixed vegetable alkali (K2CO3)
Rulandus: is fine powder.
Alkahest of Reapour
See fixed vegetable alkali (K2CO3)
Alkahest of Van Helmot (Glauber's Alkahest)
concentrated Potassium Carbonate (K2CO3)
Any substance which is slightly alkaline or turning alkaline
Alkali, Caustic
Hydroxides (OH). See Alkaline Air, Fossil Alkali, Marine Alkali, Mineral Alkali, Vegetable Alkali, Volatile Alkali.
Alkali, Common Mineral
Sodium Carbonate (Na2CO3 . 10H2O)
Alkali, Concrete Volatile
Ammonium Carbonate (NH4)2CO3)
Alkali, Fossil
Sodium Carbonate (Na2CO3)
Alkali, Marine
Sodium Carbonate (Na2CO3)
Alkali, Mild
Carbonates (CO32)
Alkali, Vegetable, Fixed
Potassium Carbonate (K2CO3)
Alkali, Vegetable, Mild
Potassium Carbonate (K2CO3)
Alkali, Volatile
Ammonia (NH3)
Alkali of Soda
Sodium Carbonate (Na2CO3)
Alkali of Tartar
Potassium Carbonate (K2CO3)
Alkali of Wine Lees
Potassium Carbonate (K2CO3)
Alkali Veg. Saltium
Potassium Chloride (KCl)
Alkali Veg. Vitriolat
Potassium sulphate (K2SO4)
Alkaline Air (Priestly)
Ammonia gas (NH3)
Rulandus: is the vase or vessel.
Rulandus: is Oil of a Hen.
Rulandus: are Burnt Copper.
Rulandus: is Vitriol from the minesor fluid Vitriol, calcinated in aludal. With others Alkali is a pebble of salt, derived from pounded limestones, extracted by moisture and coagulated by the dissipation of moisture. Above all alkali signifies the elaboration of the essential form of the said stone, freed from what is impure and separated from its body. The term is also ascribed to calcined and diffused substances when they are reduced to a solid consistency, as when common salt is dissolved by moisture and again coagulated. Also when pearls are calcined entire, are dissolved, and again coagulated, they are in themselves magisteria, and are called alkali symbolically.
Alkalized Nitre
See fixed nitre
Rulandus: Name of the philosopher.
Rulandus: Sometimes Burnt Copper, sometimes an aromatic substance, sometimes Arsenic.
Rulandus: is Mercuryor a species of inky matter.
Rulandus: is a gourd. In medicine it is a cupping-glass, and in alchemy a Cucurbite.
Rulandus: is green Duenechor Antimony.
Rulandus: is goldsmith's brick.
Rulandus: is Antimony.
Rulandus: are names of Living Sulphur.
Rulandus: is Woad Ashesor woad-colour Ashes.
Rulandus: is Smoke or Coals.
Rulandus: is Liquid Pitch.
Rulandus: is Tartar. Theophrastus says that it is the purer substance of a thing separated from the impure. Thus Alcool of Wine is aqua ardens rectified and cleansed, the best and purest, the most subtle and celestial.
Rulandus: is the finest Lead of the mines; Lapis Lazuli; Antimony.
Rulandus: is Camphor.
Rulandus: is the soft substance of lead.
Rulandus: is the powder of the basilisk.
Rulandus: is a certain species of manufactured salt.
See Adopters
Rulandus: is Water.
Rulandus: is a stone like amber.
Rulandus: is Synopide, like red grains (cf. Synephites).
Rulandus: is a copper bolusor laton, which see. A red soil or clay, used as a lubricant by wheelwrights. Also a lotion.
Rulandus: That is Litharge.
Rulandus: is Litharge.
Rulandus: is Dross of Gold and Cathmia of Gold, which see.
Rulandus: is Litharge of Silveror Argyritis.
Rulandus: signify Silver Litharge.
Rulandus: Names of Coral.
Rulandus: is Ash of Litharge.
Rulandus: is a Mine of Copper.
Rulandus: is Mercury, the Mineral Stone.
Rulandus: is Copper.
Rulandus: is Solis Gemmae ( Solis Gemmae is a kind of glittering precious stone, mentioned by Pliny. But the German version seems to refer to Sal Gemma, which see.).
Rulandus: s Dross of Goldor Refuse of Gold.
Rulandus: is prepared Sal Ammoniac; called also Asanon, Meradum, Almisadu, Amizadir; it is the German Salmiak.
Rulandus: is Verdigris.
Rulandus: are names of Tin.
Rulandus: A medicine for the liver.
Rulandus: is the cloth which covers the Vase.
Rulandus: are names of Quicksilver.
Rulandus: are names of Salt.
Rulandus: Flower of Salt, in use among dyers.
Rulandus: Ashen.
Rulandus: is a species of Alum.
Rulandus: is burnt Copperor Calcecumenon, which is burnt Earth.
Rulandus: is the Red Stone, to wit, blood from men's veins.
Rulandus: is the South-west or South.

Rulandus: are names of Quicksilver.
Anything which alters of changes the state of another
Rulandus: is Orpiment. Called also Alernet and Albimec.
Rulandus: Burnt Copper.
Rulandus: is Dross of Lead.
Rulandus: is Vitriol.
Rulandus: is Flower of Copper.
Rulandus: is a glass vessel used in sublimation.
A unit of a mutiple-head, earthenware distilling apparatus. Usually used for sublimations.
Rulandus: Names of Mercury.
Rulandus: is redness.
Rulandus: is the pure body of Jove. Called also Aluach.
Rulandus: is boatlike, otherwise a vessel shaped like a boat. Alueus minor is a vessel of like shape but smaller size.
Rulandus: Called also Vabs, is Salt of Alkali.
Potassium Aluminum Sulfate, KAl(SO4)2.12H2O; more recently the term also includes salts in which Sodium or Ammonium substitute for Potassium.
Mixed double salts of Aluminum Sulphate with Potassium, Sodiumor Ammonium Sulfate. (Potassium salt, when pure, was most commonly called "Alum."). (Al2(SO4)3 . K2SO4 . 24H2O); (Al2(SO4)3 . (NH4)2SO4 . 24H2O); (Al2(SO4)3 . Na2SO4 . 24H2O).
Rulandus: is burnt lead.
Aluminum Sulphate (Al2(SO4)3.
Rulandus: is known to all, and signifies Mercury, because it dissolves. It is the best of all crystals. Its species are various, of which some are called technically Jamenum, Roccum, Scissum, Rotundum, Zacharinum, Debelgamo, Genoese Nitre, Alum from the mines, Fusible Alum, Scaly Alum, Liquid Alum, Preserved Alum, Common Alum, Alum Placodes, Burnt Alum, Sodden Alum, Rock-Alum, and Native Alum.
Albertus distinguishes four broad species-Simpleor Common Alum; Black, White, and one which he describes fully in his book on Minerals. But here follow the several species of Alum.
1. Alum of the mines.
2. Liquid, clay-like, pale yellow Alum, from the Island of Elba in the Mediterranean. When handled it becomes so soft that it almost flows.
3. Natural liquid yellow Alum like a soft butter; it is found in the lead mines near Naples.
4. Grey liquid Alum from the same place.
5. White scaly Neapolitan Alum.
6. Very white scissile Neapolitan Alum.
7. Yellow Neapolitan Alum.
8. Scissile Alum, mixed with black dye, and redolent of sulphur when burnt. This also is from Naples.
9. Fibrous Neapolitan Alum.
10. Globular Neapolitan Alum.
11. A Neapolitan variety, found in layers, having wide crusts.
12. Manufactured saccharine Alum.
13. Square-shaped Alum of a violet colour.
14. Bright reddish Neapolitan Alum.
15. Manufactured Alum, having the appearance of fluorspar. It is produced by placing any igneous crux (untranslatable in this connection) into deep vessels, to which it adheres as if consubstantial with them, and crystallises in four-sided figures.
16. Pure bright digested Alum, found in Thuringia at Lobestein.
17. Venetian Alum which shows reddish in grinding, but is otherwise white.
18. Common Alum.
19. Burnt Alum.
20. Bright melted Alum of Dibanus, from which a sort of inky copperas exudes.
21. A variety of the above, combined with Atrament, and found in a moist clay.
22. Alum combined with Atrament excocted from Lye.
23. Pure white cocted Alum from Dibanus; this is pellucid and free from inky matter.
24. Bohemian Alum.
25. Alum of Misnense, mined in Burgos and Heringisdorf.
26. Alum of Tolpha, first mined in Italy during the pontificate of Pius the Second.
27. Veins of Alum mixed with Persulphate of Iron (misy).
28. An exceedingly white earth, out of which Neapolitan Alum is melted.
29. Rocca stone, from which Alum is derived.
30. Earth in the black ash of Dibanus, from which Alum is excocted.
31. A vein of globular Alum found on the top of the mountains near Naples.
32. A black Lobestenian vein, wherein there is a white natural Alum.
Rulandus: A name of Antimony.
Rulandus: Possibly Clay-like Alum.
Rulandus: Final State.
Rulandus: Native Soda.
Rulandus: Zacharine Alum.
Rulandus: i.e., Learto (unexplained).
Rulandus: Saltpetre.
Rulandus: Sodaor Natron.
Rulandus: The German Eyestone, a species of Varnish. It is red and transparent as mastic.
Rulandus: Arabian Azubor Alum.
Rulandus: is tartar obtained from good wine.
Rulandus: is Greek or Macedonian Salt.
Rulandus: is Zacharine Alum, and the same as globular alum.
Rulandus: is Alumen roce, which is untranslatable.
Rulandus: is Gipsum Or Gypsum.
Rulandus: is Alkali, and is identical with Cabia.
Rulandus: is fixed, saline alum.
Rulandus: is Limpart.
Rulandus: is laminated Alum.
Rulandus: is Amonum, an aromatic Balsum, otherwise limpart
Rulandus: is scaly Alum.
Rulandus: is a humid spirit.
Rulandus: is Salmiac.
Rulandus: is Lime of Egg Shells.
Rulandus: That is, Burnt Alum, Baked Alum, and Alum consumed by fire.
Rulandus: which is laminated Alum, is also called Zacharinus.
Rulandus: is Gipsum.
Rulandus: is split Alum.
Rulandus: is laminated alum.
Rulandus: are all names of Alumen combustum, which is Alum after it has been treated with fire.
Alumen Ustum (Burnt Alum)
alum dehydrated by heating
Aluminum Hydroxide. (Al(OH)3
Rulandus: is Luna
Rulandus: is a drop.
Rulandus: is Manna.
Rulandus: is sulphurated.
Rulandus: is Atrament.
Rulandus: is Cinnabar.
Rulandus: is a weight of three grains.
Rulandus: is green.
Rulandus: is burnt Copper.
Any Mercury alloy
Rulandus: is a composition of Gold or Silver and Quick Silver.
Rulandus: is a calcination of the familiar metals by means of artificial Quicksilver. At the same time, the operation of calcining is not carried out invariably to its utmost limit, and it is enough for the metal to be sufficiently melted to assume the consistency of the pulp or amalgam of the goldsmiths. The disintegration into a most fine powder which takes place under this process is also called a calcining. Further, amalgamation is calcination of a metal by Quicksilver; and it is performed when a metal, after being reduced into fine filing, thin platesor lamina, is blended and mixed with six, nineor twelve parts of Quicksilver, so that it becomes a homogeneous mass; and in this way also is the metal calcined and disintegrated. For the metal is reduced into the condition of a fine ash by evaporation with Quicksilver over a gentle fire.
Rulandus: is a stone of various colours. It destroys and binds all venomous animals, and is in no way contemptible; for which see Albertus.
Rulandus: means confect, got together; hence, to amass.
Rulandus: is Spermaceti.
Rulandus: is Common Salt, called Apostolus.
Rulandus: is Powdered Alum.
Rulandus: is a gem of violet colour, which Pliny says (l. 37, c. 9) approaches the hue of wine, yet, before it thoroughly taste thereof, it turns into a March violet colour, and its purple lustre is not fiery altogether, but declines in the end to the colour of wine. India is the native place of the amethyst, as Pliny also testifies. Thence the finest are brought; their colour is an absolute purple, and indeed the dyers would give anything to reproduce it. There is, however, another species which approaches hyacinth, which colour the Indians term Sacon, and the gem itself they call Socondion. There is a third species which is paler, and is called Sapenos and Paranites. A fourth species is wine-colour; a fifth approaches crystal, having a whitish purple tinge; and by some this species is termed Anterotis, by others Pcederotos, and by yet others the jewel of Venus. Amethysts are also found in Arabia Petrea, Armenia, Egypt, Galatia, Tarsus, and Cyprus. But these are of a miserable and worthless quality. The superstition of the Magi declares amethysts to have power over drunkenness and evil thoughts, to protect against poisons, to hive access to the persons of kings, and to avert hail. Upon the colours of the amethyst, consult Pliny (1. 20, c. 8, and 1. 9, c. 38). Inferior amethysts are found in many parts of Bohemia, and in its mines are fluorspars similar to these. The following varieties are inferior to Oriental:
1. Amethysts of Misnia, from the mines of Bergenbricht.
2. Amethysts from the waters of Misnia, and from the river Trebisa near Misena.
3. Amethysts found in the Bohemian mountains.
4. Amethysts which have the appearance of crystal.
5. Amethysts having crystalline lines.
6. Quadrangular and sexangular amethysts, brown and pointed.
Rulandus: On the testimony of Dioscorides, is a stone of Cyprus, not unlike certain species of alum. It is impervious to fire, from which it issues more brilliant. It is fabled by the Germans to be produced from the hairs of a Salamander, which is accounted for by its fireproof nature. It is a kind of stone which may be split into threads and spun. It is without doubt a scaled or feathered Alum, which can burn for ever (i.e. to say, it is Asbestos). In other respects, the Amianth is not of great virtue; however, it absorbs moisture. Pliny (l. 36, c. 19) says that it is similar to alum, losing nothing in the fire, and especially defying all the witchcraft of sorcerers. If we consider well, we (Germans) ourselves are possessed of a species of Amianth, which is found in our mines, and which we call Micah. It is of a silver colour. It is called Cat's Silver, by similitude, because cats' eyes shine like the Amianth at nightor because it is useless and thought only fit for burning. But if we consider deeply, it cannot be burned like the true Amianth; but is rather purged, and assumes another colour; a thing of no moment. What is more important to know is the power which resides in a certain stone called Asbestos, which is found in the mountains of Arcadia, as Pliny assures us (1. 37, c. 10). It is of an iron colour, and Albertus tells us that it exists also in Arabia. When this stone is set on fire there is scarcely anything that will extinguish it. Its nature is humid and unctuous. There is also the vitreous, ruddy-veined Absinth or Wormwood Stone, which will burn for days at a time, and is said to make bloodor to cause blood to flow, and is the opposite to Hematite, which congeals or checks blood. Pliny (1. 37, c. 16) calls this stone Apiston. There is again the stone called Iscultos by Albertus, and you shall judge by his own words whether it is the same as the Amianthor a stone of other species. It is similar to the flower Saffron, he tells us; it is found in the farthest parts of Spain and in the vicinity of Cadiz; it is of a crumbling nature, on account of its dried up viscousness. If garments be spun from it they may be cleaned and made white by fire without burning. It is this perchance which is called the Salamander's hell, a wool, spun, as it were, from a humid stone.
Rulandus: is a most white meal.
Ammoniacal Nitre
Ammonium Nitrate (NH4NO3)
Ammonium Fixatum (Fixed Ammoniac)
The residue on heating sal ammoniac with lime, i. e., Calcium Chloride (CuCl2)
Rulandus: A precious stone of an ashen colour, representing a ram's head. It was held sacred in Ethiopia. Otherwise, a horn-shaped stone, without polish, about eight fingers wide, and over two pounds in weight. There is a variety from Hildesheimer, also without polish. There is a third or polished form which has an iron-coloured surface. A fourth is overlaid with aurichalcum, a metallic substance resembling gold, and usually regarded as mythical. There are also the following varieties:
1. Ammonites minor, like ova of fish, the lesser Rainstone.
2. Ammonites majoror greater Rainstone.
3. Lepidotusor multi-coloured, like the scales of fish.
4. Strombites longus, the Snailstone, like the marine snail because it tapers off even as, for example, the whorl of a univalve, in a high and elevated spire.
5. Strombites brevis, a smaller variety of the same.
6. Ctenites parvus, Musselstone, ashen-coloured, striated, comb-shaped.
7. A shining sandy stone, in which Musselstones are imbedded.
8. A hard ashen stone, found in Lusatia, and containing Musselstone.
9. A polished ashen stone, overlaid with gold colour, and in which a stone like the Chama is found.
10. Onychites, having the appearance of talons.
11. Ostreites, oyster-shaped Ammonites.
12. Ostreites, another species, consisting of six of the above kind joined together.
13. Tellinites, precisely similar to the molluscs, called Tellina, overlaid with a gold-coloured covering.
14. Chemites, ashen, similar to Chama. See above, species 9.
15. Conchites, similar to a bivalve shell, with a gold-coloured armature. Another variety of the Snailstone.
Ammonium Nitrosum
Ammonium Nitrate (NH4NO3)
Derives from amylum, starch. Some terms (amylase, amylose, amylo-pectin) are still directly related to starch. The following terms come from starch-derived amyl alcohols.
Rulandus: is water filtered through limestones. Alkalis are waters filtered through the stones of the earth.
Rulandus: is Zynobrium.
Rulandus: is a retort. There is another Ampulla Vitrea, which is a vessel of glass.

Rulandus: Signifies among surgeons a certain fleshy excrescence which forms at the root of the tongue. The German version calls it mouth-almond.
A pentyl radical or substituent, C5H11-.
Pentene, C5H10, usually 1-pentene or 2-pentene; isoamylene is one of the isomers of 2-methyl-2-butene.
Amyl Hydrate
An Amyl (i.e., pentyl) alcohol
Rulandus: Father, Sulphur.
Rulandus: Native Soda.
Rulandus: Refuse of Vitrum (glass).
Rulandus: i.e., Baurac, which see.
Rulandus: i.e., Sagimen (salt) of Vitrum (glass)or Salt of Alkali.
Rulandus: Froth of Vitreum, Gall of Vitreum. The German context terms it Sandiber, Gall of Glass.
Rulandus: is Mercury.
Rulandus: is the parent of diseases.
Rulandus: is Vitreum melted into various colours. Called vulgarly Smaltum or Saracenic earth. The species are numerous-black, red, blue. It is also a substance which grows in stones, and is itself of a white and stone-like character; by some it is called Native Soda. The ancients erroneously called it Gall of Vitreum, whereas it is Gall of Stone.
Rulandus: is calx.
Rulandus: is lacka.
Rulandus: is red orpiment.
Rulandus: is Chalybs, i.e., Steel, brought from Oriental places. It melts in flame, in the same way as other metals, and can be poured into moulds.
Rulandus: is a congealed substance.
Rulandus: is smoke, otherwise horse-dung.
Rulandus: are the fruits and powers of Paradise and of Heaven; they are also the Christian Sacraments. In things physical they signify the astral potencies, and the celestial potencies, and they are those things which, by thought, judgment, and imagination, promote longevity in us. But these things are the gift of God, and make for life eternal.
Rulandus: is the efficacy or virtue of things.
Rulandus: is the archnatural body which in us Christians is implanted by the Holy
Ghost working through the most holy Sacraments. Or it is the spiritual man reborn in us.
Rulandus: As the philosophers conceive three principles, Salt, Sulphur, and Mercury, so also they conceive three other divisions-Soul, Spirit, and Body, not that the Soul and the Spirit are to be distinguished as cattle from men, but by way of similitude. The Soul is nothing else but a living, formed Body, that is turned into Mercury, and when this is done to the dead Body and Spirit, then the whole is made living Elixir. Therefore, do not make a mistake, when the philosophers speak of one Soul instead of two Souls, for it is all one thing. The Mercury has in itself the Soul, and is called our Mercury, which is the house and dwelling of the Soul. Also the Soul is called Spirit, and the Spirit is called Soul. The Spirit produces the Soul from the Body, and returns it when it is white. Therefore, it is called the Life of the Soul
Rulandus: Vita Anima. Should the Spirit depart from the Soul it could not give the life. The Soul unites and conjoins the married, Body and Spirit; so the Spirit unites the Soul with the Body, so that it is all one thing. There are two Souls
Rulandus: one of gold, the other of silver. The Soul of the gold must remain, and cannot do so without the Spirit, nor yet the Spirit remain without the Soul. There must be fixed, abiding, undying Souls. At first the Soul lies hidden under the Spirit; finally, the Soul and Spirit remain hidden under the Body. Then dost thou first behold pure Mercury. Through the crude Spirit is the mature Mercury taken away from the released Body, which is a fixed ash remaining behind to be dissolved further. Out of this is extracted a petrine, incombustible Olitet or Gum, which vivifies, unites, and welds the natures together, and as they separated the natures through the Spirit, accordingly through the Soul they unite them again. This Olitet preserves the colour of the Spirit even to thickening. Then is it fit for the production of royal weapons and metallic figures. It manifests itself as golden in golden and as argentine in silver. The Soul's ascent is when the Body becomes white, clear, and fluid. Immediately they are one and living. Then is there danger. If the Soul escapes or burns it is lost. So is the Soul quickly given to the Body and takes shape. The Soul proceeds out of the unified Body; she is herself the living body, and is called REBIS, Putrid Water, Corruption of the Dead, Blood and Blood Water, Lymph, the Animal Stone, Blessed, Blood, Sulphur, Olitet. The Soul is a simple thing, which sometimes has power to bring the Body with it.*
[* It is the tincture withdrawn from the body. Soul also is said to be in Arsenic.]
Rulandus: (Literally, Marshmallows) of Saturn, is a most mellifluous sweetness which is extracted from Lead by vinegar. (A right noble sweetness, according to the German.)
Aniline Purple
Mauvein, C27H24N4, the first aniline dye, 1856 (Perkin's mauve).
Animal Alkali
Ammonium Carbonate [(NH4)2CO3]
Rulandus: is Calx of Eggsor living Calxor Quicklime.
Rulandus: The philosophical year, is the vulgar month.
Rulandus: is the nutriment which is separated in the veins.
A medicine or drug which alleviates pain.
Rulandus: is the Philosophical Stone, the gift of God, Sulphur fixed by Nature.
Rulandus: is Quicklime.
Rulandus: are names of Sal Ammoniac.
Rulandus: Son, Mercury.
Rulandus: Spirit, Salt.
Rulandus: is a pure lotion.
Rulandus: is Mercury.
Rulandus: is extract of the medicinal properties of the Hyacinth. It is also the yellow centre which is found in such flowers as the Lily.
Rulandus: That is, Oven.
Rulandus: is properly ROSEMARY, but in the terminology of metals it signifies Quintessenceor Elixir of Gold. It means further the extracted medicine.
Rulandus: is Borax.
Hydrated Sodium Thiosulfate (Na2S2O3)
Rulandus: is Calx of Metals.
Rulandus: A stone from a lead veinor vein of Othi. It is also Marchasite, a kind of Saturn, a kind of Antistinus (unknown), and Stybium. It is a muddy Marchasite, having a fixed Sulphur, and is insoluble. It is of two kinds. One is the ordinary black species of Saturn, and is called Magnesia, Bismuth, Contersin. It is of the race of Jupiter, an immature, ill-favoured product. It is Dross of Lead and has the virtues of burnt Lead, being of similar substance. It is cold, dry, and astringent.
Antimonial Caustic
Antimony Trichloride (SbCl3)
Antimonium Diaphoreticum
Mixture of Antimony Oxide and Potassium Antimoniate (Sb2O3; KSbO3)
Antimony Sulfide (Sb2S3) (pre-18th. century). Pure Antimony was called "regulus of antimony."
From latin "antimonium" used by Constantinius Africanus (c. 1050) to refer to Stibnite.
Antimony Black
Antimony Trisulfide. Antimony (III) Sulfide, Sb2S3, a grey-black powder.
Antimony Bloom, White
Antimony Trioxide. Antimony (III) oxide, Sb2O3.
<Antimony Glance
Antimony Trisulfide. Stibnite, a native Antimony (III) Sulfide. (See Glance.)
Antimony Red
Antimony Oxysulfide.
Antimony Vermilion, (Red, Flowers)
Antimony Oxysulfide. Antimony (III) Oxysulfide, Sb2O3.Sb2S3, containing some SbOS2. See Flowers.
Opposed to fermentation
Rulandus: is Borax.
Rulandus: Eternal Spring, the new world, the Paradise to come.
Rulandus: A utensil with a narrow mouth, used in manufacturing oil.
Rulandus: is Sulphur.
Rulandus: is the venereal state.
Rulandus: Froth of Saltpetre, Wall-salt. As salt and froth of salt have great affinity for each other, so also have Nitre and Froth of Nitre in like manner. For the rest, Aphronitum, Froth of Nitre, Flower of Stoneor Wallflower (like froth of salt) is excessively light, lumpy, crumbling, frothy, pungent, and that which approaches a purple colour is the best kind. We term Froth of Nitre both Aphronitum and Frothy Aphronitrum which grows on walls and stones; in many places it is known by the German name of Mergell. Froth of Nitre varies in its species according to the stones and walls where it grows. Its virtue is similar to burnt salt. Froth of Nitre, Flower of Stone, and Flower of Stone of Asia are very nearly the same, differing slightly in substance. If it melts in fire, it is Flower of Stone of Asia; if not, it is our own Froth of Nitre.
At Iena, in Thuringia, which is rich in simples, a very beautiful species of Aphronitum is found, which corresponds in the main to the Flower of Stone of Asia, described by Dioscorides.
Apothecary Measures, Dram (Drachm)
Unit of weight equal to 3.888 g.
Apothecary Measures, Fluid Dram (Drachm)
Unit of volume equal to 3.55 mL (60 minims).
Apothecary Measures,  Minim
Unit of volume equal to 0.0616 mL
Apothecary Measures,  Pound (Libra) Troy
Unit of weight equal to 373.2 g
Apothecary Measures, Scruple
Unit of weight equal to 1.296 g.
Literally water (Latin). In addition to terms denoting a condition or source of water (such as aqua tepida, warm wateror aqua nivialis, water from snow), some aqua terms denote aqueous solutions.

Rulandus: i.e., Liquid; the elemental matter from which water can always be obtained. It is not water from the clouds, but a dry mineral first substance, a catholic water, which dissolves all metals, and can be reduced to water even as ice is reduced. It is almost like a blackish gum, according to R. W. This water cleans, washes and expands, it renders substances spongy and liquid, and afterwards dries and fixes them, making them white and red. Therefore Gebir says: Burn it in water and wash it in fire. The end of the Epistle to Thomas of Bonona describes this water. As ordinary water in which vegetables are boiled partakes of their nature and virtue, so also is it with the mercury which is boiled with metals. Out of this water all things grow and have their nourishment. It unites itself with metals, which can be performed by no common water without aqua fortis.
The fruit shall not be disturbed for the intercourse of the bridegroom and the bride, but no ordinary water shall be extracted from the mercury, for if the mercury be changed from its first nature, it is useless for this purpose, because it has lost its spermatic and metallic character. Therefore our water is not clear and translucid, but dark, for the (philosophical) earth is beneath it.
There are two kinds of water; the first dissolves and makes its subject spongy ; the other completes the operation. This is truly fire, and even stronger than fire, for it is a universal solvent. One is simple, though evil, the other is composite; both are philosophical. The Water is Adam, the Earth is Eve, and these two are one flesh. They are also called Salt Urine, Salt Water, Vinegar, Sour Wine, Living Calx, Water, Sea Water, Ashen Water, Yeast, Alum, Nitric Water, Dog Bane, Dragon's Tail, Soul, Wind, Air, Life, the Illuminating Gift, Broad Daylight, Virginal Milk, Armenian Salt, Saltpetre, White Smoke, Red Sulphuric Water, Gummy Water, the Male, Tartar, Saffron Water, Burnt Ore, White Composition, Putrid Water, Putrefaction of Dead Bodies, Blood, Mercury, Cucurbit, Alembic, Vase of the Philosophers, of which the upper part is called the Grand Manor Head-piece, the middle is called Belly, the end is called Foot. When the vessel is put in the oven, a vapour rises into the funnel, and passes as water into the belly, immediately producing a soul. The water dissolves the rest and absorbs it upward. This takes place in a philosophical month of 40 days. It is called the Flying Dragon, heavenly natured, dividing the elements of bodies and again uniting them. At last it turns thick like honey, and of green colour. It is called the Green Bird.
Aqua Fortis
Concentrated Nitric Acid (HNO3). Literally "u water". See Nitrous Acid, Spirit of Nitre.
Aqua Phaganeda or Phagadenica
A mixture of corrosive sublimate and limewater
Rulandus: is Water produced from Wine by sublimation.
Rulandus: is Lime Water.
Rulandus: Celestial Water, is rectified or sublimed Wine, partaking, in a certain way, of the nature and likeness of heaven, passing through many revolutions. It is the German Himinels Wasser.
Rulandus: is Mercurial Water.
Rulandus: is Tartaric Water.
Rulandus: is Vinegaror any corrosive liquid.
Rulandus: is Water of Common Salt.
Rulandus: Water of Wine Lees (in German Weinhesen Wasser) is made when the lees, having been evaporated, whitened, and calcined, are dissolved with water in a marble basin, after the manner of oil of tartar.
Rulandus: is Mercurial Water.
Rulandus: is composed of corrosives combined in a certain proportion (that is to say, it is impure Nitric Acid), and distilled by a fierce fire; it has a most piercing corrosive power. The strongest is called Stygian, which rules Sal Ammoniac with the rest, as therein gold is dissolved. The other species have various qualities. Aqua Fortis, increased by careful mixture, to be suitable for certain purposes, is called Gradatoria, which is applied to the graduation of dyes. And they (the other kinds) become like Aqua Fortis of the same material, but this is done by the addition of colouring matter like cinnabar and alum. In which (operations) it should be noted that it dyes nothing unless there be cohibition over the feces at least eight or ten times, since otherwise they will not be fixed.
Rulandus: is common Salt Water.
Rulandus: is Orpiment.
Rulandus: or Mucilage, is Water combined with Sugar, julep, and similar substances, such as claret and spirituous liquors.
Rulandus: is sea water.
Rulandus: Mercurial Water. Essential Water of the stone.
Rulandus: is Salt of Alkalior Aqua Fortis.
Rulandus: Enduring Water, is that which is made by the philosophical solution out of two perfect metallic bodies. It is Sol and Luna dissolved in water, and likewise united. It is also called Celestial Water, and Mercury of the Philosophers. It is Incombustible Gum, the very best Vinegar; a sharp, penetrating Water, which dissolves bodies; and the Spiritual Virtue. Called Mercury because it has sharp and clear Mercurial power and property. Also Maleor Husband, and White Smoke, because it rises and goes up. Also Dragon's Tail, and Flying Bird.
Rulandus: Philosophical Water, signifies, with some writers, Sublimed Vinegar; with others, Circulated Wine; with yet others, Perennial Water, which does not wet the hands.
Rulandus: Palestine Water, is Flower of Copperor Verdigris.
Rulandus: is Rain-water, Soft-water.
Aqua Regia
Literally "Water of the King" or "Royal Water". A mixture of Nitric Acid, HNO3 and Hydrochloric Acid, HCl capable of dissolving the "Royal Metal" gold. Various proportions were used, depending on the material to be dissolved. Commonly, more Nitric Acid than Hydrochloric Acid was employed. 
Rulandus: Ruddy Water; Aqua Megi and Aqua Segi are Vitriol Water.
Rulandus: is Water made from Salt.
Rulandus: is Water generated from the first principles in the bowels of the earth, and resolved into small diaphanous stones. Radicated Vinegar Water. Chalybeate. Aqua Saturnia is also that which retains the nature of the three first principles through which it passes, such as thermal springs said to be naturally medicated.
Aqua Secunda
Dilute Nitric Acid , often used for cleaning metals and minerals.
Rulandus: Dropping Water, is a specific extract of aqueous consistence produced in the condensation of vapours after distillation. It is of two kinds, solvent and simple distilled water. Simple distilled waters are specific material arcana, distilled from substances in such a manner that, while retaining the arcane virtue, they are nevertheless softer and weaker than are solvent waters, and approach nearer to a phlegmatic element; more correctly, simple distilled waters, which are softer, and more diluted in strength and consistence, are produced by a more simple distilling. For the phlegmatic element is cruder, and differs little from common water in appearance. Simple distilled water has a more aqueous and less igneous character than solvent water, but is more igneous and less crude than phlegm. And although all the water is used up in distillation yet it is first named from its office, and in the end more properly receives the name of a solvent. It differs from simple distilled water by its penetrating and ardent sharpness, and laborious distillation, so that it has a minimum of aqueous element, but is more like a flowing fireor a fiery water. By Gebir it is termed Aqua Acuta; by others, the Key of Philosophers. Quicksilver obtains in certain cases the whole strength of this water. Other substances have the same office, as lye, stalactite, and honey, also undefiled aqueous substances, like sour wine. It is the vulgar custom to distinguish between simple distilled water and corrosive water. True solvent water is the same as aqua fortis. (Solvent water is distilled vinegar; also called sea water, because in distillation there is more fluid than residue; and again cloud water, because of the brightness of rain-drops.
Aqua Tofani
Arsenious Oxide. Extremely poisonous.
Rulandus: is Aqua Fortis.
Rulandus: is glass dissolved with water.
Aqua Vitae
Literally, "Water of Life"; concentrated Aqueous Ethanol, C2H5OH, typically prepared by distilling wine [Arnald of Villanova]

Rulandus: is Mercury, but the term is sometimes used for distilled Wine, and for various Waters mixed with distilled Wine.
Rulandus: is iron colour.
Rulandus: is a simulaerum, which stands for a thing, but is not the thing itself.
Rulandus: The Eagle, queen of birds, signifies Sal Ammoniac, because of its lightness in sublimations. In many places Paracelsus, however, uses it for Precipitated Mercury.
Rulandus: is Birdlime, which appears reddish in the first coagulation. It is also the Spirit that is changed into Earth, i.e., the Spirit of Mercury, the stone itself. The Turba says: The perfection of every single thing is in its own order. Therefore the adept fixes ten Eagles, etc. It is also said to be Sal Ammoniac and Fixed Sulphur.
Rulandus: is Arsenicor Sulphur.
Rulandus: is Aurum Guttendo (probably gold liquefied), also Fidelo, Edel, Sedalo, arbitrary terms not explained by Rulandus.
Rulandus: The Eagle of Philosophers is the Mercury of Metals, i.e., a metallic nature reduced into its first matter.
Rulandus: Wild Marjoram.
Rulandus: is Laton, i.e., Aurichalcum.
Rulandus: is a metalline substance which grows in the sea. That is, it is a coral, and its other names are Corallia, Curallion, Gorgonion, Dendrites, and Lithodendron.
Rulandus: Same as Morphea (? Morphew); a scurfy eruption of the skin, at first without ulceration, which, however, follows in time.
Rulandus: is a secret, incorporeal, and immortal thing, which no man can know save by experience. It is the interior virtue of any substance which can achieve a thousand more wonders than the thing itself. The unrevealed principle, undying essence.
Rulandus: or Physical Secret, is a specific extract akin to the matter of a body. But when the matter of fixed bodies is composed of a duplex element, namely, humid and dry (note that air and fire are more properly formatives, and possess an efficient faculty), then does the Arcanum imitate a like condition: distilled water and coagulate specific.
Rulandus: is an extract of the interior nature, related so intimately to the substance of any species that the same may be known therein. It must be educed with care lest the gross substance perish. For this reason is it called specific. And it differs from quintessence, which, by reason of its extreme subtlety and excellence, seems almost to have deserted its species, and gone over to the class of ethereal things. But the Specific Arcanum exhibits the substance, shape, and specific difference of composites as an extract more akin to the interior body. The Specific Arcanum is duplex. One is of the essential and substantial form, and is called Astral, the other is Material.
Rulandus: as it were, the pillars of the earth, the Paracelsian foundation of the earth, which does not appear to be supported by its fellows, but by a great and secret power of God. Called also Archallem. The power which upholds the earth by itself, for the other elements do not hold it up.
Rulandus: is the divider of the elements; he disposes them, and relegates everything to its place, genus, and species.
Rulandus: is a most high, exalted, and invisible spirit, which is separated from bodies, is exalted, and ascends; it is the occult virtue of Nature, universal in all things, the artificer, the healer. Also Archiatros
Rulandus: supreme physician of Nature, who to every substance and member dispenses in an occult manner, by means of the air, its own individual Archeus. Also the primal Archeus in Nature is a most secret virtue producing all things out of Master, doubtless certainly supported by divine virtue. Or, Archeos is an errant, invisible species, the power and virtue of Nature's healing, the artist and healer of Nature, separating itself from bodies, and ascending from them. Archeus signifies, in addition, the power which educes the One Substance from Iliaster, and is the dispenser and composer of all things. It individualizes in all things, including human nature.
Rulandus: are names for Burnt Copper.
Rulandus: is a small bow.
Rulandus: Ardent or fiery matters, which are not assimilated in food and drink and are by their nature obnoxious to operations, as, for example, Carabe, Therebinth, Bitumen, and similar substances. That which naturally burnsor gives forth fire.
Ardent Spirit
Ethyl Alcohol obtained after repeated distillations (CH3CH2OH)
Rulandus: Any flat or open surface, as, for example, a heath. In metals, a mass excavated from a mine. Tow.
Rulandus: Clear spaces.
Rulandus: Shaft of a Mine. Mine where ore has been found.
Rulandus: A sandy circle.
Rulandus: Cinnabar.
Rulandus: Sand is the clear body of the stone.
The Species of Sand are as follow:
1. Common sand.
2. A beautiful white sand dug up in deep gulleys to the west of Misena.
3. Pestgrana, also from Misena.
4. Thirsty or absorbing sand, which is washed and sifted, and has the character of German blotting-paper.
5. Table sandor Block sand. Sand which has not been washed.
6. Sand found at Groede, in the Netherlands.
7. Sand from the pits of Misena.
8. River sand, which is mixed with lime, and is made use of in building.
9. Metallic sand from gold mines, in which particles and grains of gold are found.
10. Metallic, out of which gold is washed in the Elbe.
11. Metallic sand of Misnense, in the district spoken of by fishermen, near Leisnic.
12. Sand of Misnense, from the bank near the bridge of Schellenberg, and in that wood.
13. Coarse sand which is strewn over roads-sand for pathways.
14. Coarse black sand, from which those small black pellets are obtained out of which white lead is extracted. Sand containing tin.
15. Coarse, barren Sand.
16. Red Sand of Thuringia.
17. Yellow Sand of Glogaw.
18. Sand of a golden colour, from which the Roman mountain derives its name
Rulandus: Golden Mountain, formerly called Janiculum.
19. Grey Sand.
20. Shining or Sparkling Sand
21. Sea Sand.
22. Sand out of pools and stagnant water. Muddy Sand.
23. Slimy metallic Sand.
Rulandus: Armenian Bolus. See Bolus.
Rulandus: A scouring, washing with lather. The cleansing of any sand from the foreign matters which are mixed with it.
Rulandus: Not to be confounded with the chemical Mars. It is the giver of seed, the occult dispenser of Nature in the three prime principles, and the bond of their union. It distributes to all things whatsoever its peculiar form, species, and substance, so that it may put on its proper and specific nature, and no other. Between these three there is therefore to be noted a difference in nature beautifully ordained by divine providence. Ares is the spirit in Nature which out of the three prime principles gives to everything its shape, genus, and substance. These three are Iliaster, Archeus, and Ares. Iliaster is a substance of most widely spread nature, consisting in the universal first matter of all things, which it first distributes into the three principles, Sulphur, Mercury and Salt. Iliaster is the substance, the First Matter of all things, out of the said three principles. Archeus is the first dispenser of Nature. He produces and creates, like an artificer, all things, after their own kinds, out of this Nature. Aresor the Assigner, extends the peculiar nature to each species, and gives individual form, so that it is by him that, for example, in the vegetable world, plants are endowed with root, stalk, flowers, leaves, and sap.

1. Pure, unmixed silver, needing no cleansing in the furnace; solid silver, wanting no fusing, generated in perfection, possessing a perfect colour, firmly encrusted with a species of rock or ore. At this present time such silver is still turned out from our mines. But of this species Pliny was ignorant when he said (1. 33, c. 6): It is never found but in pits sunk on purpose for it, nor is it ever found pure and solid, nor are there any bright sparkles, as in gold mines, to indicate its existence in the ore. The earth that engenders the vein is either reddish or of an ashen grey. So far Pliny. But this pure silver surrounds the stone in extremely thin plates; sometimes also it exhibits a species of small hairs upon its surfaceor little curls of thread, also small twig-like filaments, either white or redor like such fibres of red silk as are used in spinning. Again it bears impressions of trees, instruments, mountains, herbs, and other objects. I have myself beheld likenesses of fish; I have beheld the crucified Christ and our Lady; I have seen a serpent, a scorpion, etc., formed out of pure silver in the bowels of the earth.

2. Rude silver ore, of which various kinds are produced from our mines, namely, deep red, leaden, black, purple, ashen, and reddish in colour, of which we proceed to treat successively.

3. Silver melted out of other metals, such as leaden pyrite, mica, etc., concerning which see also below.

Rude silver of a ruby colour-
Rulandus: called red golden ore by the Germans. It seems to be a kind of carbuncle. The carbuncle has, however, an intenser ray, but this rude silver is of a paler ruby. It is found in mines, valleys, and other places variously deposited, but chiefly after three manners: Firstly, in a black-coloured ore ; secondly, like minute bright particles adhering to a certain species of rock; thirdly, in pure solid masses or nuggets cleaving to stones or rocks. It is sometimes found by itself, sometimes in combination with a foreign substance, which projects in a sharp-pointed pyramidal or top-like manner. Sometimes it assumes a square or quadrangular form, sometimes it is sexangular, like the Iris stone; frequently it consists of many unequal angles. Thus by a wonderful operation does Nature practice geometry in the bowels of the earth. Lastly, rude ruby-coloured silver is found beautifully aspersed with blue, so that Nature would seem to have exhausted her ingenuity over the formation of the metals, and to have diverted and amused herself with so many and such brilliant colours, that no art, however high, could possibly attempt to follow. This last species of silver was unknown to Dioscorides, to Pliny, indeed to all the ancients. Theophrastus was the first to make mention of it, when he said: There is another gem of a colour like unto plums, which loses a little of its weight in melting, as the smiths know". It should be noted, in fine, that a most admirable colour for painting is composed out of this species. It might also have a place in medicine did any one make the experiment. It has been erroneously confused with Sandarach, as will be shown under that head.

Rude silver of a lead colour. Nature, by hot and dry vapours exhausted in the bowels of the earth, tinges or dyes the sap or moisture whence silver is madeor joins it with various colours, as we find in these species of rude silver. The first of these is of red colour, sometimes aspersed with cerulean. The second, with which we are here concerned, has the hue of lead, and is found in vale and mountain. It is conspicuously like the lead ore with which it is connected by name. But this is as regards colour, for in other points it differs, as the illustrious Georgius Agricola very plainly lays down in his Berinannusor Metallic Nature. But to return to our subject. I have said that rude lead-coloured silver resembles lead ore, but it differs in this, that lead ore is of crumbling nature, and falls to pieces easily when struck with a knife. But the silver species cannot well be pounded; it can be cloven, it is true, with a knife, like lead, but when it has been bitten with the teeth it rebounds again, and lead ore will not do so to any appreciable extent. This species of silver is found in large lumps in its own veins, as if imbedded in a nest. It is also found in conglomerated masses, looking something like buds distributed on the branches of a tree, with perfectly circular nodules, cleaving to rocksor imbedded therein. At other times it assumes the shape of little sticksor other similar figures. Agricola testifies that he has seen perfect specimens of metallic instruments such as shovels and small hammers taken from the ore. I myself have beheld natural figures or images of small fish, lions, wolves, etc. Truly Nature is not idle in the darkness and the depths of the earth. Other varieties of this species adhere like thin plates to the rock.

Rude black silver, the black silver ore of the Germans, is the third species of rude silver. Occasionally it shines in the black ore, much like the lead-coloured species which has been already described. Again, it has little particles of the red-coloured varietyor particles at other times of white silver, and the more it abounds in these, the more metal does the ore yield when it is melted, which was unknown to Pliny and the ancients. Occasionally the ore is sterile, when it is simply termed black earth, and as such is treated in its proper place, s.v. Terra.

Rude purple silver, the fourth species of the rude metal, the Braun Erz of the Germans, was unknown to Pliny and the ancients, but it has no little percentage of silver in the ore. It is found chiefly in the mines of Tarcicus.

Rude reddish and ash-coloured silver, otherwise grey ore, is the fifth of the rude varieties, and yields more metal in melting because its proportion of silver exceeds the others. Thus we certainly see that the grey ore is frequently rich in silver, more especially when it is somewhat hard, so that it can be cut with a knifeor if it be soft, with very thin morsels of silver shining in the leaden ore. When it does not possess this colour, it is then of least value, having the smallest proportion of silver. With these two varieties Pliny seems to have been acquainted when he says (1. 33, c. 6.), One ore is ruddy, the other ashen; I find little of any other kind. And these were known to the ancients. These are the six species of rude silver ore which are known to German metallurgists. Perchance there are others also which might be discovered by a diligent examination of the mines, such as we ourselves may undertake at a future time when our leisure is greater than at present.

The refuse of silver, called also Scoria, Helcysma, Encauma, Silver Slack, :; that which is left after the metal has been melted outor which is commonly removed from the furnaces where silver is subjected to the operation of fire. Dioscorides (l. 5, c. 51), affirms that the recrement of silver has the virtue of lead wortor plumbago, which is an astringent, and draws out. It should, therefore, be an ingredient in plasters placed upon wounds. But do you, candid reader, consider how complicated with us is this matter of the recrement of silver? For silver is melted out of pyrites, that is, out of copper ore, and out of lead ore. Do you judge whether this, which is our true recrement of silver, is that meant by Dioscorides, who was unacquainted with these same species, and how, therefore, could he know the true recrement of this precious metal? But we will set aside these considerations. Consult Pliny on the recrement of silver (1. 33, c. 6). It may be granted out of hand that silver cools and desiccates, and, therefore, its scoriae are of a drying nature, as .va may experience in our own recrement of rude silver, if we put faith in the recrements of medicine.
Rulandus: is Arsenic.
Rulandus: is Litharge, which still contains a certain percentage of silver; it used in plasters, and has otherwise a penetrating quality. It differs little from recrement of silver obtained from the leaden ore, and is very like lead spume. Dioscorides, who was well acquainted with the workshops where metals are melted, and little with the mines, enumerates (1. 5, c. 52), three species of silver litharge:

1. Molybditis, spume of lead, which is melted out of sand in furnaces, until it burns with a perfect flame.

2. From lead, which is made from leaden plates; Dioscorides praises the Attic and Spanish, and afterwards that which comes from the warm wells of Puzzoli, Baia, the Campania, and from Sicily.

3. Litharge of silver, which is of two kinds, Argyritis, German silver litharge, from silver-coloured silver, which at the present day is used in a crude and not a prepared state. Chrysitis, which is of gold colour, and is the gold litharge of the Germans, not that it is made from gold; it is derived from silver, and the reference is to the colour only. The virtue of these varieties, according to Dioscorides, is astringent, mollifying, restoring, restraining, and cooling.

Consult also Dioscorides upon the methods of burning and cleansing litharge of silver, how colouring matter is added to it, how its mature state is ascertained, and what its virtues are. Pliny (1. 33, c. 6), makes three species of silver litharge:

1. The best, which he calls Chrysitis.

2. Argyritis, made from silver.

3. Molybditis, fused out of lead, whence its name is derived.

Hence it would appear that Pliny represents Molybditis to be fused out of lead, while, according to Dioscorides, it is obtained out of sand, unless the species derived from leaden plates was formerly called Molybditis. Pliny, who, according to his custom, transfers all the information of Dioscorides concerning litharge of silver to his own pages, notes also that litharge from scoria differs as much as possible from litharge obtained from recrement. There are others who regard Sterelite and Pneumenis as species of litharge. When litharge of silver is drunk, it is said to be a potent and speedy acting poison, which also Dioscorides affirms (1. 6, c. 27). And Nicander, to whom Dioscorides is in this place considerably indebted, in the twenty-second recipe of his Alexipharmaca, which may be consulted concerning symptoms and antidotes. On this point, see also Serapion, his book of Aggregation, in the chapter on Marechet. See also Paulus on the virtues of Litharge of Silver, s.v. Galenum.

Silver is otherwise thus divided.
1. Rude white lumpy silver from Schneberg, which can be cut with a knife and beaten out with a hammer. Snow-white solid silver; thick silver.
2. Nuggets of solid silver in a very white metallic spar.

1. Silver of Anneberg, solid, white, capillary silver.
2. Solid capillary silver, having a multitude of wiry fibres bundled confusedly together.
3. Very white silver, like a ball of minute silver threads ; twisted silver.
4. Like a silver curling iron, in a crumbling earth of a nut-brown colour.
5. In a shiny loam-coloured earth.
6. Silver of Marieberg, in a gray, metallic, fluid cobalt.
7. In a very white horn stone.
8. In a red quadrangular translucid fluor spar.
9. Silver of Marieberg, in a hard grey stone.
10. Capillary silver of Anneberg, in a mass of lead-coloured silver.
11. Capillary silver of Anneberg, with silver of a lead-colour in a very white spar, combined with a red-coloured pyrites.
12. Capillary silver, combined with lead-coloured silver in white fluor spars. 13- Capillary silver found in the valley of Joachimica, in a forest of fir-trees. 14- White ore of Anneberg, containing rude, ruby-coloured capillary silver, of transparent appearance. Also rude lead coloured silver clearly distinguished in the same stone. Golden ore and vitreous ore combined, yet clearly distinguished.

Compounded in other Forms.
1. Deposited in the form of little trees.
2. A flame-shaped ore to which little masses of lead-coloured silver are found adhering.

1. Pure, solid, white plates of silver in a fatty stone.
2. Thin solid plates of white silver in hard grey ore of Marieberg.
3. Pure white silver in iron pyrites.
4. A clear, solid silver in a clear mountain Chrysocolla, from the Alps of
1. Lead-coloured silver, easily cut and made into coins, and easily hammered into plates.
2. In hard and very white pyrites.
3. In sexangular white fluors.
4. Impressedor stamped, vitreous ore, which has not been tried by fire. Soft, and therefore easily broken.
5. A pure, quadrangular, vitreous ore, of conical or pyramidal form.
6. In transparent, purple, quadrangular fluors, blunt-pointed.
7. Rude ruby-coloured silver in the centre of a solid vitreous ore of lead colour.

Grey or Ashen.
1. Grey solid silver, in shape like tongues of flame, found in the hard cobalt of Anneberg.
2. A specimen of solid grey ore.
3. Grey silver in a very white flint.

1. Black solid ore in a sheer hornstoneor flint.

2. In grey pyrites.

3. Shaped like a branch of the cypress tree.

Transparent and Ruby-coloured.
1. A small nugget, like a carbuncle or amethyst. Fine ruby-red, gold-red ore.
2. Like a carbuncle, with six, sevenor eight angles. Of the shape of an upright beam, in grey pyrites, and natural yellow sulphur.
3. Like the bristles of the hedgehog in a black metallic cobalt; shaped like a head.
4. Little masses seeming to be compacted of red garnet.
5. Larger nuggets compacted like transparent red garnet.

Non-transparent Ruby-coloured.
1. Blood-red, seven-angled, gold-red ore.
2. A nugget in a white metallic spar.
3. A nugget in a gold-coloured pyrites, similar to natural cinnabar.
4. In white sexangular fluorspar, like the exterior cortex of the chestnut rough and sharp and prickly.
5. In an ashen flint.
6. Beaten, golden-red ore, cleaving to a grey hornstone.
7. Showing white in a very golden-red ore.
8. White, red, and gold in a soft white stone.
9. In ashen pyrites.
10. In a worthless sulphuret of lead.
11. Silver containing gold; golden silver.
12. Dark golden red.
13. Liver-coloured, golden red.
1. A yellow capillary silver in a yellow earth.
2. Like copper pyrites, to which lead-coloured particles adhere.
3. A transparent horn-coloured pure silver of Marieberg, scintillating with light.
4. Solid dark silver, like an ordinary grey earth. It is heavy, and if struck with a hammer, will sparkle. Many experienced miners are unacquainted with it.

1. Containing in its centre, like a kernel, a rude red silver.
2. Mixed with lead-coloured silver and pure white nuggets.
3. Green silver of Anneberg, mined in celestial blue veins.
4. Purple or brown-coloured silver mined in the same place.
5. Silverine stone.
6. Veins of silver in a hard gravel-stone.
7. A rich silver ore from which the recrement has not been removed.
8. Silver mixed with lead, separated from copper. Mixed with lead, i.e., tin, black lead.
9. Rich ore mixed with lead.
10. Lead or pig of workable lead, rich in silver.
11. Mediocre, a thin line in the vein.
12. Poor, a freshly deposited layer.
13. Hard layers, rich in metal.
14. Soft and dry, with a large proportion of black lead.
15. A small specimen of silver nuggets.
16. Refined silver.
17. Grey recrement of gold; grey silver slag.
18. Black silver slag.
19. Silver litharge.
20. Prepared silver, rich in lead.
21. Refined silver, purged from other metals.
22. Burnt silver.
23. Fine, prepared silver.
24. Pressed or stamped silver.
25. Gilt silver.
26. Silver drawn into wire.
27. Silver plates.
28. Silver separated by washing from copper.
29. Silver dissolved into grains.
Latin for Silver hence the symbol Ag; argentum vivum, literally "Living Silver", is native Mercury [Pliny]

Rulandus: The Luna of Chemists, to which also it is attributed, is the metal ranked next after gold, white with a pure whiteness, unspotted, hard, resonant; and the colour of its whiteness is due to pure, very fixed quicksilver, which is also white and clear. In like manner, it is composed of sulphur, clean, fixed, white, and clear, which has precipitated the substance of quicksilver, but is something deficient in fixation, colour, and weight. Silver is, as it were, a daughter of Nature most near unto gold, produced from the copulation of quick silver, and white, incombustible sulphur. Silver is found in our mines.
Rulandus: Alkali or nitre.
Rulandus: is the chemical term for Mercury. It is simply a viscous water, in the bowels of the earth, of a subtle substance, having the nature of white earth, made one with a perfect union, up to the last point and particle, until that which is humid is modified by that which is dry, and the dry again by the humid, until the whole is absolutely homogeneous. Also Vivific Silver, i.e., the philosophical substance which is to be distinguished from common quicksilver, is the complementary part of the stone of the philosophers, as the chemists tell us; the second principle, the mother of all the metals, and in proportion as it copulates with their father, the male sulphur, it engenders perfection and imperfection in metals, and when it predominates the metals (like a foetus) derive more from the mother than the father. Into that also from which they most originate are they most resolved. Now quicksilver is twofold-natural and artificial.
Natural, possessing without excoction its own inherent colour, in which state it is found among metals in the smith's troughs, commonly in the form of filaments. True, Native Quicksilver, the mother and element of metals. This species was known to Pliny, 1. 33, c. 6, who says: Within these veins and mines there is a certain stone found which yields from it a humour continually, and the same continues always liquid; men call it Quicksilver. It may not have been seen by Dioscorides when he said: Quicksilver is also met with among the debris of silver mines, exuded in drops; others testify to having found it by itself among metals.
Artificial, which is made out of the minium secundarium of Pliny (l. 33, c. 7)or out of veins of miniumor cinnabar, which is found in our mines. The first was known to Dioscorides (l. 5, c. 60). He describes the method of its preservation, its use, its poisonous nature, and the antidotes thereto. Consult also Pliny, 1. 20, c. 5, and 1. 28, c, 9, 10, as well as other places and authors.
For the rest, it may be noted that the Greeks called both native and artificial Quicksilver by the name Hudrargyron. But Pliny only distinguishes the natural species, as appears by our former quotation, by the name of Quicksilver, and that which is artificially produced from cinnabaror derived from its ore, he distinguishes, if I err not, by the name Hydrargyron
Rulandus: a classification which is also observed by the most learned Leonicenus. It may be finally noted that Quicksilver, while in its liquid state, is called crude in our workshops; when mortified, it is called concreted, or by some sublimated. It is warm and moist in the fourth degree. Some say that it is cold in the fourth degree. The chemists consider it both cold and moist in the fourth degree, liquid in the third, white in the second, and dark in the first degree. There are, moreover, other opinions.
The following species of Quicksilver are also enumerated:
1. Vivific Silver (Philosophical Quicksilver), i.e., Spiritor Mercury, which is also the Fugitive Servant, Asoc, Ydrogiros, Sanlarum, Anzatig, Asoc, Zaylat, Azehoc, Kyregiros, White Smoke, Alsohoc, Asob, Ayor, Azec, Alozet, Azoar, Aurarid, the Dragon.
2. That which is obtained without smelting, pure among metals. Pure Quicksilver.
3. Quicksilver smelted from veins of cinnabar.
4. That which is called Sublimated Quicksilver.
5. Precipitated.
6. Mortifiedor killed.
7. Quicksilver solidifiedor fixed by art.
8. Native Minium.
9. A hard round nugget which the Arabs call Cinnabar.
10. Fragile Cinnabar.
11. Artificial Cinnabar.
12. Natural Cinnabaror Red Lead. The vein from which it comes.
13. A vein of Cinnabar in which Quicksilver exists, and which exudes in drops when the ore is broken up.
14. Solid Quicksilver from the valley of Joachimica, similar in colour to rude ruby coloured silver ore.
15. Similar to coccolite, with pyrites of gold.
16. Similar to coccolite in a white fissile stone.
17. A variety in a grey fissile stone.
18. Liver-coloured ore, rich in Quicksilver.
19. Similar to rude golden-red silver in silver coloured loadstone.
20. A swarthy-red Quicksilver ore from Hydrensis, which exudes drops of Quicksilver when broken with a hammer.
21. Liver-coloured Quicksilver ore from Hydrensis.
22. Tawny-coloured Quicksilver ore in which there are layers of gold
coloured pyrites.
23. Recrement of Quicksilver.
Rulandus: are so called because they are similar to the clays used by potters. Potters' Earth. There are numerous species of these clays, which are distinguished by their colours, and are found in our mines, distributed through many places.
1. White Seburg clay.
2. White clay of Anneberg.
3. White Islebian clay, sparkling with silver particles.
4. In white ashen Islebian deposit, which is found in copper mines under a red sandy earth.
5. Fine grey ash-like clay of Misnense.
6. Light green ashy clay of Misnense, near Risa and the Elbe.
7. Cinereous clay from Herlesberg, which the people of Nuremberg combine with a sandy earth to make those melting pots in which brass is manufactured.
8. Combined with a sandy earth ; clay for the melting-pot.
9. Slime of Misnensis, of beautiful yellow hue.
10. Yellow clay of Annebergor silver clay.
11. Like red earth from the district of Okroll.
12. Red Islebian clay, in which silver particles are sparkling.
13. Iron-coloured Bavarian clay, with which those furnaces are coloured
wherein iron is treated. An iron-grey sand.
14. Purple clay, which much abounds in my own country. When the spade
is removed it appears quite red. 15. Ash-coloured.
15. Bohemian, crumbling, loamy, rich in ore, abounding in garnet.
Colours may be manufactured from all these species, provided they are not over-moist. The best jars and pots are made from them, if the clays be treated rightly by the potters in moulds shaped according to the prescribed rule. But this I leave to the potters.
Argillaceous Earth
is engrafted.
is Silver ; hence lithargyros, argentiferous-stone. For lithos signifies a stone.
1. Aridura is the wasting of any bodiesor menstrua, in what manner soever. It is especially the shrinkage of metals, dissolution, dying. It is also called Sideratio, Numbness, Sphacelus, Sphacelismus, Telia, Necrosis.
2. Aristolochia has a white flower, red inside, like a stone itself.
3. Arles Crudum
not translatable; the Germa context menas soimpletpons or ninny, which seems irrelevant. What are refered to, however, are drops of water falliong in June as the dew in May. Caled also Hydatis (a precious stone of te colour of water), Stalagmi (consisting of drops; also a species of vitriol, Stagen and Straax.
4. Armoniac Sal, i.e., star. Called also Genzir.
5. Arohot
Rulandus: Quicksilver.
Arnaudon's Green, (Plessy's Green)
Chromium (III) Phosphate, CrPO4, a green pigment.
Rulandus: Mandragora.
Aromatic Oil
Any "oil" with a sweet or exotic odor. Often an essential oil.
Rulandus: Asphalt.
Arsenic Trioxide (As2O3)
Rulandus: of which there are three species: White, Yellow and Citrine. Yellow orpiment, golden dye; crystalline arsenic. Item: Red Greek Sandaraca which is of two kinds, rough and manufactured; the former was a red arsenic mixed with brimstone, the latter a kind of vermilion.
Arsenic, Red
Arsenic (II) sulfide, As2S2 (Realgar, Red Orpiment).
Arsenic, White
Arsenic (III) oxide, As2O3.
Arsenical Sal Ammoniac
Ammonium Arsenate (NH4)HAsO4.
Rulandus: is the Greek Nitre, Effulgence of Metals; Salt of Metals, and of Saturn Called also Artanekor Artanech. Found in many places. It is also Luna, and our Venus. According to Gebir, it is Sulphur's companion. It is the soul, the hermaphrodite, the means whereby Sulphur and Mercury are united. It has community with both natures, and is, therefore, called Sun and Moon.
Rulandus: is Lacten, (?) milky.
Rulandus: Deficiency of some member.
Rulandus: A red oil from the roots of certain herbs obtained by their digestion with bread in horse-dung.
Rulandus: Refiner, one versed in ores and metals; an assayer.
Rulandus: Soap.
Rulandus: Fetid inspissated Sap from an Indian tree.
Rulandus: Blood of the Dragon.
Rulandus: Vitriol or Red Atrament.
Rulandus: Verdigris.
Rulandus: Impetigo, a cutaneous disease, and Serpigo, twisted ringworm. Ulcers and blemishes of the skin are of cognate character.
Rulandus: is the German Alaun, Alum. It is a metallic substance or vein of earth, which occupies a middle position between vitriol, or copperas, and salt, and is found in mines. It is like a salt substance, or liquor, issuing out of the earth (see Pliny, 1. 35, c. 15). It is composed of water and slime; whence its nature is that of an earthy efflux. It is drawn off in streams during winter, and it is perfected by fermentation under the summer suns. It is like a vein of earth which is transmuted into a white colour by excessive heat. Every species of chalcantum contains alum. Now the name alum signifies something manufactured (in this place the sense of the text is obscure); we may admit several species of alum on the authority of the learned, and most certainly that alum is made in hot places, and above all in those which are sulphureous and igneous. But as there are indeed many kinds of alum, we proceed to tabulate them for the sake of those who are interested in this matter.
Rulandus: is the Lion.
Rulandus: Haematites.
Rulandus: Blood of the Dragon.
Rulandus: is Sol.
Rulandus: is Broken Alum.
Ash, Black
Impure Sodium Carbonate (Na2CO3).
Ash, Pearl
See Pearl Ash
Ash, Pot
See potash
Ashes of Tin
Stannic Oxide (SnO2)
Rulandus: is the permixture or commixture of any metals with each other.
Rulandus: is Soot.
Rulandus: Flower of Copper, Red Bitumen, or Indian Bitumen.
Rulandus: is Nutmeg.
Rulandus: are worms which eat into boards, wood fretters, formed between the boards.
Rulandus: A powder which falls from walls of salt.
Rulandus: A species of hard and dry Ash.
A quantitative determination of the metal in an ore or alloy
Rulandus: A species of hard and dry Ash.
Rulandus: Names of verdigris.
Rulandus: Hand-barrow.
Rulandus: Small Planksor Poles, on which miners sit for working the mine.
Rulandus: Boards joined by their sides.
Rulandus: An outside plank or slab.
Rulandus: An artificial alum of the appearance of the stone, i.e., white. See Morien.
Rulandus: Quartz.
1. Astroites Mas, male Astroites, shaped like half a globe. An asterite full of stars.
2. The female variety, without the stars of the male, but having representations of caterpillars, in which way the stars are thickly compacted by nature.
3. Little Globules of Asterite, on which prayers, like the Lord's Prayer, were told formerly (Rosary Beads).
Rulandus: The Sidereal Celestial Star. Here star signifies the virtue and potency of things, obtained by preparations, as for example, the star of sulphur is the augmentation of sulphur, whereby it is changed into a most notable oil. Note. The star of salt is its resolution into a water or oil, by which it is endowed with more than its normal virtues. In like manner, the star of mercury is its sublimation, by which it acquires a wonderful increase of virtue and power, far exceeding, and far more subtle than, what it naturally possesses. (German version : Astrum.) But in our chemical art, it signifies the nature and power of a thing, which it receives from preparation, as when mercury is sublimed, sulphur lighted with a spark of fire, salt dissolved, and dissipated by itself. Then they become astral, starry, and are called the Star of Mercury, Sulphuror Salt. The Star is the Alkol or Quintessence, the sheer and clear power, the extract, the cream, and the property of the thing, says Bacchus.
Astrum Lunare Microcosmicum (Phosphorus, Phospheros, Fosperus)
Elemental Phosphorous (P)
Rulandus: is Galaxia, Constellation.
Rulandus: is a stone which cuts other stones.
Rulandus: is Azulite.
Rulandus: is Atrament. Called also Soot.
Rulandus: is Talc or Nitre.
Rulandus: is a perforated vessel.
Rulandus: A hook (literally); Uncus Aquinus, is a vessel for sublimation.
Called both philosophical and arcane, is an oven adapted for composing the stone of the philosophers. The fire does not touch the base, and the required heat is suitably and uniformly imparted. Many vain things have been imagined by many persons concerning the method of constructing this oven. But the one of our invention, even as it exceeds all the other ovens which have been described by its superiority over all, requires to be minutely treated of in this place, as much on account of the contiguity of the fire as of the equable nature of the same. A circular wall is erected of the height of one foot. On either side of this wall a vacant space, with a small door, is left. This is for the removal of the ashes. Above this structure there is placed a small iron gridiron, and above the said gridiron we erect another small door, which is broader at the bottom than at the top, and is an aperture through which the coals can be stirred with a poker. When this turret has been set in an upright position in the manner described, and has been filled with coals to the top we cover it with a covering of clay. But at the same time, in the hindmost part of the wall, and in that portion of it which is nearest to the gridiron, we leave a small hole open, through which the heat may be able to approach the Athanor, and we stop this aperture with a spatula (a long instrument for stirring)or with an iron bar (some term it a register), which can be raised and lowered. We make also at the top of the turret, of the breadth of five inches, beneath the cover, a small aperture, through which the index finger shall just be able to pass, by which the fire may draw the air, as if a fuel, to itself. Over against the turret constructed in the manner described, there is set another oven, which is the Athanor itself.

After the same manner, a circular wall, one foot and a half in height, is constructed, which completely fits with its sides the posterior opening of the first turret. On this wall we erect an oven, leaving on the top of the furnace a small aperture, like an imperial thaler, whereby the heat in this part, to some extent pressing upon the furnace, can pass upward to the next nearest furnace. Then we again build an eighteen-inch wall by the place where we commenced the furnace ; we cover the same with a lid, again leaving a small aperture at the top, as in the case of the lower one. However, it is necessary that in one side of this part there should be left a clear space where the matter can be put in and taken out. For in this middle part is the workshop where the matter is prepared in its proper vessel, placed over a tripod. In order to fill up the clear space, and close it up lest any air should be produced, a wellfitting lid is made to.cover it. Finally, with a third lid, we cover the whole of this second furnace, leaving, however, at the base four air-holes, which also have covers, whereby the heat may be increased or diminished. This is the philosophical distillatory oven, the Turba Clibanusor Reverberatory Oven of the Philosophers.
Rulandus: is Rock Borax.
Does not necessarily correspond to the modern picture of the ultimate particle of an element. , for example, meant something more along the lines of "ultimate particle of a substance"; to him the smallest unit of a chemical compound was a compound atom (molecule in modern terminology), while the smallest particle of a chemical element was a simple atom (now just atom, although several of Dalton's simple atoms turned out to be molecules of elements, such as O2).
Rulandus: is variously classified.
1. Scrivener's Atrament, Writing Ink.
2. Printers' Ink, Oily Atrament.
3. Shoemakers' Inkor Tanners' Atrament, Shoemakers' Wax, Chalcanthum, Hydride of Copper, Cobblers' Black, Copper Oreor Vitriol, red inside and having red stripes.
4. Atramentum Rubeum, Red Burnt Vitriol.
5. Atramentum Tectorium, Vel Pictorium, Soot, Painters' Black.
6. Atramentum Album Tenue, soft, white Atrament, Hydrate of Copper Flower.
7. Atramentum Fossile, Native Copper-stone (apparently from which the ore has been extracted).
8. Atramentum Candidum, Durum, Stalacticum, native Stalactical Vitriol.
9. Reddish and spongy native Hydride of Copper.
10. Red Stalactical Vitriol, of good quality, native in white earth.
11. Hard green Copper Stone washings, native in Goslaria.
12. Native porous Green Atrament.
13. Green hard Stalactical Atrament of Goslaria.
14. Grey Stalactical Atrament in a white earth, natural grey Copperas.
15. Grey hard native Copperas.
16. Green hard prepared Copperas or Vitriol of Goslar. Green hard native stalactical Vitriol.
17. Green hard porous prepared Copperas of Goslaria.
18. Grey native Neapolitan, with a pure yellow Sulphur.
19. Very beautiful cerulean prepared Copperas from Cyprus.
20. Green bluish prepared Copperas from Goslaria.
21. Blue Roman prepared Copperas.
22. Blue Hungarian prepared Copperas.
23. Blue Hungarian Copperas combined with a very white Alum.
24. Blue prepared Copperas from Radeberg, similar to Pannonian.
25. Radeberg Copperas combined with Sulphur.
26. Blue prepared Silesian Copperas combined with Alum.
27. White hard transparent sublimed Vitriol or Copperas.
28. Distilled Copperas or Oil of Vitriol.
29. Burnt Vitriol.
30. Burnt Cyprian Copperas.
31. Recrement of Atrament, Salt, Nitre, and Alum after distillation. The dead body of Aqua Fortis.
32. Recrement of Atrament from which Sulphur of Radeberg is afterwards melted out.
Ferrous Sulfate (FeSO4)

Rulandus: is Akata; another variety is Alfrein; another, Kalkadis; another, Chalcanthum, is Egythian Atrament.
Duenec, Malagislaca, Black Chalk, Brittle Pitch.
Rulandus: is White Vitriol.
Rulandus: is fixed Vitriol.
Rulandus: is, I believe, Vitriol.
Rulandus: Red Atrament, is called Asaric or Asagi.
Rulandus: is nothing else but Vitriol, i.e., Chalcanthum, i.e., a sort of Flower of Copper. It is not however Kalkou Anthosor true Flower of Copper, as we have before stated. Chalcanthusor Vitriolor Atramentum Sutorium, is one thing; the ancient Flower of Copper is another, and was obtained, among other ways, from the washings of copper ore, while Flower of Copper has in modern times been given as an alternative name of Verdigrisor Copper-Rust. Once again then Atramentum Sutorium is Vitriol formerly used in leather tanning. But because it is corrosive to shoes, another kind was devised by shoemakers, which is in fact our present Cobblers' Black. But with the ancients Atramentum meant Vitriol, that metallic substance which is simply a congealed water, having a quality of copper, but differing in its form and nature with the stone to which it adheres. In a discourse upon springs and rivers, Seneca tells us that the earth contains various humours, and a spirit like that of the human body where there are also various humours, of which some are vital, some corruptible, some more fatty, and some which in time become dried or hardened. Of this substance are all metals which are melted out of the moisture in stone. Such also, in like manner, are those metals which chemists have not inappropriately termed spirit, and which are different from things which flow. Dioscorides (1. 5, c. 64) says that soft and hard Atrament are both Sutoriumor Shoemaker's Atrament, but that there are three species:
i. That which is concreted from humours which are collected by droppingsin mines, and is called Stillatic Vitriol. The best quality is furnished by copperine metals. This species is also called Pinarion and Distillatic. It is the German native Distillatic Vitriol.
2. That which is termed Pecton, i.e., concreted and congealed Vitriol; which forms in caves and grottos, and brought afterwards by a simple process into excavated trenches, assumes a concrete form.
Now, these two species are natural, and differ in shape and manner of formation. This is the German Copper-smokeor Soot of Copperor Pyrites, concreted or congelated in the mines. Both species have their medical uses; they are astringent, healing, and induce the formation of skin. Classified according to colour, there are three species of Shoemakers' Black or Vitriol. White Vitriol, not mentioned by Dioscorides, but which Pliny describes (1. 34, c. 12). On account of its white colouror similitude of colour, he tells us that it was called Leucoion (white violet), and is used by fullers in their trade. Shoemakers' Wax and Sory are akin to this species. For the rest, the white violet Leucoion of Theophrastus and Dioscorides is well known in physics. (But this probably refers to the herb called Leucoion. Some editions of Pliny read Lonchoton, following Dioscorides, instead of Leucoion in the passage cited above).
The second species of Atrament is green. The third is blue, and is said by Dioscorides to be the best stillatic atrament; it is heavy, close-grained, and translucent. By others it is called Lonchoton (see above), because it forms in the figure of a javelin. The method of operating upon this species by fire is taught by Dioscorides: And a great thing verily is the knowledge of the virtues of Flower of Copper, i.e., of Verdigris, according to the moderns, and of Chrysocolla, and of the Vitriols.
Manufactured Atrament is made in Spain, and the mode of its manufacture will be also found in Dioscorides, who further informs us that it is of high service in dyeing and colouring. By the Germans it is called Hydride of Copper, which is manufactured either simple or in clusters; that is reputed to be the best which is of a blue colour.
Pliny (1. 94, c, 12) divides Chalcanthum, i.e., Vitriol and Shoemakers' Black, into Native Mined and into Manufactured. Of the first there are three varieties:
1. That which is dug up in trenchesor obtained from caves.
2. That which comes from mines in the rocks.
3. That which is obtained from sea-water, on admitting sweet water, and by means of violent heat.
The manufactured species is made from materials found in those pits and pools of Spain where there is the same kind of water from which native Atrament is derived.
The Metamorphosis, transmutationor transfiguration of these Minerals by the Artifice of Nature alone.
Great is the Knowledge of Flower of Copper, the Verdigris of the moderns, of Chrysocol, of the Vitriols, and other species of Atrament.
I. Green Zegor Shoemakers? Blackor Vitriolor Chalcanthum (native or changed or passes into:
1. Misy, very easily.
2. After a long time into Chalchitis, as regards outward appearance; internally it is still Shoemakers? Black.
3. Filaments, when it is old. Manufactured Chalchitis is then wrought from it. Also Chalcanthum changed into Chachitis can then be made into Misy.
II. Chalcitisor honey-yellow Zeg, according to Pliny; brass colour, according to Diosorides (Zeg is the name given by the Arabs, who also call it Colcothar), has a middle position between marchasite (i.e., Black Zeg, or Pyritesor Black Atrament), and Vitriol (i.e., Green Zegor Chalcanthum), and when old can be changed, and passes into:
Sory, very easily;
Sory and Melateria pass on the other hand into:
Chalcanthum Leucoion, i.e., White.
The Arabs call Atrament Zeg simply, and distinguish these species thereof:
1. Black Zeg, i.e., Black Atrament, i.e., Marchasite, i.e., Pyrites. For Marchasiteor dissolved Pyrites, makes Ink, which Serapion calls Black Zeg, which mixed with wine and vine garis resolved into a black colour; Avicenna calls it (De Atramento, 1. 2) White Atrament, because before it is dissolved it is white.
2. Zeg Colcotaror Chalcitisor Zegi, of a citron hueor copper colour, according to Dioscorides. Also called Citrine Atrament. There are in all four varieties: Red Zegor Ruby Zegor Ruby Atramentor Red Atrament. It is called Asuria.
3. Green Zegor Green Atrament, which is Chalcanthum or Vitriol, already described. And this is Shoemakers' Black.
Serapion in his chapter on Zeg affirms that he has himself seen in the mines Black Zeg, i.e., Marcasite, i.e., Pyrites, and afterwards Colcotar, i.e., Chalcitis, and Green Zeg, i.e., Vitriolor Chalcanthum, in combination.
And he says that these three species differ in subtlety, and grossness. For out of them is derived the grosser kind, i.e., Black Zeg, i.e., Pyrites ; and also the finer, i.e., Green Zeg, i.e., Chalcanthumor Shoemakers' Black. But Colcotar is a middle species between the two others. This is also called Chalcitis. Moreover, Green Zeg and Colcotar are liquefied by fire, but Black Zeg is not easily melted.
Green Zeg, Chalcanthumor Shoemakers' Black, more especially the Cyprian kind, is solid, though it is the finer species of Atrament, and it is easily changed into Misy. Outwardly also it becomes Chalcitis, though inwardly it is still Shoemakers' Black. This transformation is very beautiful. All these are natural metals, namely, white, greenor blue Chalcanthum ; also Chalcitis, which is copper-colour ; also Misy, which is gold-colour ; also Sory, which is almost the hue of Melanteria (Shoemakers' wax) ; and they all are mentioned by Galenus, and were used by him in plasters; nor were they less valued by others of the ancients, for they were held in high respect of old, and were used universally in Cyprus. I do not know whether they are found in our silver mines, but I do not deny that they might be, if they were diligently sought. They are met with in the copper mines of Goslaria and in other places, though but rarely, it must be allowed. It is a remarkable thing that wherever Marcasite, i.e., Pyrites, exists there also are all the others, namely, Chalcanthum, Chalcitis, Misy, Sory. All these species blacken, and hence are called Atramen. Chalcanthum is hot and dry in the fourth degree, according to Paulus.
We have treated of Shoemakers' Black from the ancient and the modern standpoint.
We must now briefly consider with Dioscorides the subject of Scriveners' Blackor Writing Ink. The methods of its manufacture which are described by Dioscorides, are, however, quite obsolete. We now compound ink for writing in a very different way, namely, from Vitriol, Gall, Gum, and in other fashions, as our clerks have reason to know, seeing how inks vary with the ingredients that compose them. It would be permissible to classify writing ink into natural and manufactured. The first is an extract well known to all scriveners, namely, Sepia, derived from the Cuttle-fish, on which consult Dioscorides, Pliny, and Nicander. It is also obtained from Eruca, a kind of plant which some call white Mustard, on which also consult Dioscorides in his 1. 2. The manufactured species, according to the same writer, are these:
1. From the Resin of Pine Trees.
2. From the Soot of other Resins, and Corrosives of Painters.
But among us manufactured ink is obtained:
1. From Stone, which we shall treat of in the section De Paigite.
2. ? From burnt Bark (ex carta combusta
Rulandus: but there is no such word as Carta).
3. From the Seed of the Alder.
4. From Milk and Curds [? the text reads cate, but there is again no such word in Latin].
5. From the Soot of oily or fat substances.
6. From Vitriol, Gall, and Gum. Pliny (1.35. c. 6.) gives other methods
Rulandus: as from Sulphur-coloured Earth, from Coals, Soot, etc.
Rulandus: i.e., Stone.
Rulandus: i.e., Flower of Copper.
Rulandus: i.e., a small clay Coffer.
Rulandus: is a name given to some Medicaments, also called Magnetite, which have an attractive power.
The action of rubbing one body against another; mutual friction.
Rulandus: is Glass.
Rulandus: Signifies Egg-shells.
Rulandus: are names of Mercury.
Rulandus: Fuse-Mallet.
Rulandus: Small mass of Gold. Queen.
Rulandus: Brassor Ore. Copper Ore, etc.
Arsenic trisulfide (As2S3)

Rulandus: is Orpiment, Arsenical Earth, the Operment, Yellow Gold, of the Germans, and is used by painters. It is a native metallic substance, and is found in combination with Sandarac (Dioscorides, 1. 5, c. 70). It is covered with a crust, and glitters with a gold colour. In its fundamental nature it is a certain kind of sulphur, and is, so to speak, a terrestrial excrement in the caverns of the earth, which in the long process of time is turned into Orpiment. There is also a fissile species, of scaly character, found in Mysia Minor on the Hellespont. Another variety is pallid, cloddy and granular, having the colour of Sandarac; it comes from Pontus and Cappadocia. The Arabs say that Orpiment is similar to Lapis Specularis (which see), but the latter has no unguent quality. The Arabs, however, confound Sandarac with Arsenic, and, in fact, give the name of Arsenic indiscriminately both to Sandarac and Orpiment, distinguishing only their variety according to colour. Chemists as well as physicians call our Sandarac Red Arsenic; and Arsenical Earth what we call Orpiment. Avicenna speaks of White Arsenic, but true White Arsenic is never found in mines, and his description may possibly refer to certain manufactured species, one of which is mud-colour and the other white, which are manufactured chemically, and are both at the present day known only by the general name of Arsenic.
Concerning all these species see Serapion (lib. Agg. cap. Harmech) and Avicenna (cap. on Arsenic), who treat of its good and evil qualities. Sublimed Arsenicor Arsenical Salt, destroys life, and White Arsenic in its natural state is also fatal. They are all poisonous. (See Diosc., 1. 6.)
Orpiment is also the Blood of the Stone. The Turba calls it the female which we use to colour the Sun and to cook with Mercury. It is, however, genuine Sulphur. Quicksilver Orpiment is Sulphur which rises from the composition.
There is also Auripigmentum Lempinas, which is Lily-water, Crusty Orpiment, Cloddy Orpiment, dry Yellow, Cloddy Orpiment, mixed with Sandarac, Ruby Orpimentor Realgar, white Sublimated Orpiment, differing from that of the mines, and Sublimed Orpiment from black, ruddy, and mud-coloured veins of ore.
Latin for Gold, hence the symbol Au; aurum fulminans (fulminating gold): gold hydrazide, AuHNNH2, an olive-green powder that can explode on concussion.

Rulandus: Gold, called Sol by chemists, and dedicated to the Sun, is the most tempered of all the metals; it is said to be warm and dry in the second grade, and red in the third grade. It is a metallic body, of citrine colour, effulgent, heavy, equably digested in the womb of earth, washed with mineral water during a very long time. It is composed of pure living Silver, fixed, and of a clear red; also of a clean, fixed, red, incombustible Sulphur. In fine, it is the most subtle substance of Quicksilver. Truly we have beheld Quicksilver absorbing gold which it receives most willingly, even as a mother receives her son. Further, Gold consists of a small quantity of clean Sulphur and of a pure redness; the greater the quantity of Vivific Silver, the more does it derive from the mother than from the father. Purest Sulphur copulating as father with Quicksilver as mother, generates finest Gold as a son. Briefly, coagulate Quicksilver, together with Sulphur, like a pure fire, yet not burning, produces Gold. This is that beloved son which Nature ever intends to beget, after which she ever strives ; but various accidents intervene and procreate the other metals. Now Gold is duplex-native and prepared by fire.
Pure Native Gold, which is naturally pure, whose lumps or masses are called in Spain Palacrae (ingots), and by the Germans Solid Gold, this is found
1. In rivers, such as the Tagus, Elbe, Saale, Schwartza, etc., as you may learn from the gold washers.
2. In Arabian mountains, in mines, and wells; in part pure, in part with its grains cleaving to a certain species of white stone which the Germans call Quartz. Found plentifully at Cottenheyd.
3. In the heads of fish which we call trout.
Gold prepared by fire or by melting:
1.Out of Pyrites, of the colour of ashes and leaden ore or dross.
2. Out of a certain purple Earth, so tempered and effected by the vapour and breath of the earth, that it is fruitful of gold, and in many places gold is melted out of it in the furnace.
3. Out of Boraxor Antiphane. Out of Cerulean (Jasulis), of which we shall speak in its proper place. Situation, however, as we have frequently had reason to see, is serviceable to the quality of gold. There are differences in distinct grades between Arabian, Spanish, Hungarian, and German gold.
Gold is the substance and ferment in the philosophical gold which doth ascend into the height. For the Mercury of the Sun is a seed, according to Bernard. It is the Soul and the Red Knight who takes the White Lady in marriage. It is then he is robed in his kingly apparel, even the white gold, wherein is no metal but only gold. It must, however, be purified by means of Cement, through the repository of ashes, and very carefully cleansed by means of Salt and Brickdust. When it is dissolved with water, it is made into a spirit by the intervention of Chrysolite. Mix Gold with Gold, then Gold cannot become Silver unless it be corrupted, adulterated, and black; and when even it becomes Silver, then does it become Gold. But then we must apply processes. Says the adept Senior: The Sun rises when the Moon increases, and is hidden in the same; it is next drawn out from thence. The Body of the Sun and Water of the Sun is Mercury of the Philosophers. Yes, it is threefold, being black, white, and red. It is called the imperishable, because it cannot be destroyed. The Moon makes the Sun soft, spongy, and fluid, and it refines it from impurity. It is the Mother and the Field wherein Gold should be sown. Otherwise we need it not, except in Sun and Moon. Says Theophrastus in his ninth book of Archidoxes : The essential being of Gold is devoid of Salt that congeals, therefore it penetrates and dyes the metals. The ordinary Gold is dead, but the philosophical is alive, and is a true nutriment. The common Gold goes out of men as it enters them. These are the words of Rupecissa in his third chapter. But Paracelsus in his book on Minerals has this concerning the Generation of Gold. Know that there is a Sulphur which is in the highest degree sublimated by Nature, and cleansed from all its blackness and refuse, and so highly diaphanised that there can be nothing among metals which isor could be, higher in the bodily order. This also is the Sulphur which is the first matter of Gold, one of the three principles. If the alchemists might find it
Rulandus: (it is a gold tree and it is possible to discover it by its roots)
Rulandus: then would they have cause to rejoice. For it is the Mercury of the Philosophers, which is produced from Gold, not that other which is made from Mars and Venus; it is the Scrupulus (i.e., the Rough Stone), the Universal Substance. Now the Mercury, by a metallic art, is separated to the greatest possible extent from all terrestrial matters and accidents; it is transformed only into a pure mineral body, in every respect transparent. This is the Mercury of the Philosophers, which generates Gold, and is the second part of the First Matter. Afterwards comes the Salt, which is the third of the prime principles of Sol and of the Tree out of which Gold grows; it is crystallized to the greatest possible extent, and so perfectly separated and purified from all its sharpness, acidity, and flavour of alum and vitriol, that it is said to have no beginning, but is free in itself, to the greatest extent disengaged, and in the highest degree diaphanised. Now are the three together.
Gold is the Microcosmos, a small world. It has three principles and four elements; it is a heavenly substance, heaven, and the rays of the Sun. Therefore it withstands fire, and is the most eminent medicine. It has in itself all the stars of heaven and all the fruits of earth. It is called Incombustible Sulphur, Italian Antimony, Metallic Glass, Loadstone, Vegetable Iron (? the labiate plant called Siderite), Marcasite, Cercilium Auri, Gold-Spiral, Purple Gold (i.e., Powder of Cassius), Chrysocolla (Borax, also a precious stone), Gold Stone, i.e., Chrysites, a precious stone of the colour of gold, the Green Mountain, Borax, Chrysocome (another name of Chrysites, but it may also mean Flax-Weedor Beard of Jupiter), Gold Grain, Chalcedony. There are, however, several species of Gold:
1. Pure gold, which has not been tried by fire, such as is washed out from sand in the Elbe, and in many rivers of Misena. Solid washed gold, liquid gold, gold grains, etc.
2 Gold in an unmixed state, mined in a mountain of Carpathos. Solid gold.
3. Gold obtained in a small quantity from a ferraceous ore in the same mountain.
4. Solid gold in a hard white flint, from the same mountain.
5. Solid gold from the same mountain, found in a stone called Armenian. Solid gold in pot-stone.
6. Thin plates and dust of purest gold, in a hard white flint, from the borders of the province of Pannonia in Hungary.
7. Yellow, argentiferous gold in an ore containing Quicksilver.
8. Gold mixed with silver in an ashen flint, obtained from Noricum, between the Danube and the Alpsor from Styria, and called Electrum, which is gold with a fifth part of silver.
9. Gold combined with silver after purification by fire.
10. Gold prepared by fire and separated from other metals. Fine gold, called by the Greeks, Obrussa, Assayed Gold.
11. Gold which is combined with silver, equal or clean gold.
12. Gold coloured by copper.
13. Gold beaten into wire.
14. Gold beaten into plates.
15. Pellets, found in streams, near the bridge of Honstein, and out of which gold is extracted.
16. Pellets or shavings of gold from the same place. Solid gold strips or granules.
17. Veins rich in gold, found in the mountain of Carpathos.
18. Light pellets of gold from the same place.
19. Gold filings, collected, cleansed, and made into pellets.
20. Froth of gold.
21. Refuse of gold.
Rulandus: is Gold-leaf.
Rulandus: To test gold with touchstone.
Aurum Fulminans
An explosive gold compound prepared from gold dissoled in "Aqua Regia" and a solution of Ammonium Carbonate. The exact formula is still in doubt.
Rulandus: is gold in a weak tincture or colouring, which dyes those substances with which it is combined.
Rulandus: is Gold Filings.
Rulandus: Gold of the Philosophers, i.e., Lead.
Rulandus: Potable Gold, devoid of corrosive quality, known to very few, and, among these, they who prepare it at the present day do so rather to the destruction than salvation of men.
Rulandus: Gold of Life, is Precipitated Goldor Mercury precipitated with Gold, and reverberated to a deep red. A precipitate made with gold, and brought by means of fire to an intense redness.
Rulandus: Living Gold is Quicksilver.
Rulandus: is another superstition which some have devised from observation of the winds, in such fashion that when the stars which govern the winds cause more violence in them than is common, thence men, more idle than curious, draw an omen of the future.
Rulandus: is Pure or Limpid Water.
Rulandus: is that Red Lead in the middle of the egg which rises above itself, which flies on high, and again descends to earth for its nourishment, for earth gives nourishment to all things. It is also the Soil in the Matrix, and is called otherwise the Goose.
Evaporation,escape, act of "flying away."
Rulandus: a small axle-tree, beam, poleor roller.
Rulandus: Axle-pin.
Rulandus: Fat of a dead body, sometimes written Mummy of Marrow, is the marrow of bones.
Rulandus: is Burnt Copper.
Rulandus: is Red Earth.
Rulandus: is Verdigris.
Rulandus: Unknown.
Rulandus: Ammoniac.
Rulandus: Orpiment.
Rulandus: Atrament.
Rulandus: Green Atramant.
Rulandus: Broken Alum.
Rulandus: Hematite.
Rulandus: Names of Vitriol.
Rulandus: Water of Atrament, Ink, Blacking Water.
Rulandus: is melted butter.
Rulandus: is Red Leador Cinnabar.
Rulandus: is a black stone found in gold ore. It is also moss which grows on the
Rulandus: is Burnt Copperor Plates of Copper.
Rulandus: is a stone on which Salt is encrusted.
Rulandus: is Flower of Copperor Burnt Copper.
Rulandus: is our Mercury. It is a double Mercury of the Material Stone. Therefore they say: Azoch and fire are enough to whiten the Laton, and to prepare the whole work. In the first work it appears white. Then the woman overcomes the man, who thereupon becomes black. According to Braccesca, when Azoch turns into Salt, then it washes the Latonor the metallic Sulphur. When it does not part with the red and become white, then it is useless. This Sulphur is called the Male. At first it is red, and when this redor the sap which causes the redness, departs, then it is said that the Sulphur has departed.
Rulandus: is Sweet Alum.
Azote, Asotic Air
Nitrogen (N2) Phlogisticated Air; see also Mephitic Air, named because it did not support respiration and was therefore "lifeless". Azote is still the French word for this element.
Rulandus: is Quicksilver, drawn out of any metallic body, and properly the corporeal Mercury, the Mercury of the metallic body. With Paracelsus especially, it is the universal medicine, to which all things are alike, uncovering every species of substance, and imparting an immense strength, and catholic central virtue. It includes in itself all other medicines as well as the first principle of all other substances, their accidents excluded. Enclosed in the pommel of a sword, great exploits shall be performed by the wearer into whatever place he goes. For the rest, Quicksilver is extracted out of metal. But Theophrastus celebrates one Azoth for its eminent medicinal virtue. Some think it to be the philosophical stone. Azoth is drawn from bodies by means of Mercury, and is called a living spirit, a spirit endowed with a soul, our Water, Vinegar. Mary of Egypt says: When the Laton is whitened, it is called Azoth. Therefore men say Azoth whitens the Laton, then the Laton again whitens other things, and when again red, it re-assumes the name of Laton. Gebir says Azoth is the Mercury which is drawn from substances through the Mercury of the Philosophers. Therefore it is, and it becomes, an elixir, i.e., a substance dissolved in Mercurial Water. It is called in Arabic Azoth, a dissolved silver; it is also the metallic earth in the mines, and is called Vitrefied or Vitre-coloured Azoth. It is white and shining, but red internally; also it is black and green to look at, and it has a colour like a poisonous earth. It is nearly related to the metals.
Rulandus: is the chemical vase.
Rulandus: is Red Coral.
Rulandus: is weight; also berry-covered, pearl-covered.
Rulandus: See Turba, fol. 30.
A blue pigment from cobalt
Rulandus: is Red Vitriol.
Basic Copper (cubric) Carbonate (2CuCO3 . Cu(OH)2
Rulandus: is the Arabic for Alum. Called also Azel.
Rulandus: is Vermilion or Red Lead.

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