Alchemical Dictionary - P


Rulandus: Were Queens like. Melusine and Melora.
Rulandus: To Support Beams by Cross-pieces.
Rulandus: A Stanchion.
Rulandus: Cake, Carcase.
Rulandus: Stones made of Pyrites or Cadmia.
Rulandus: Silver Plate.
Rulandus: A Mole or Birthmark.
Rulandus: Matte of Copper.
Rulandus: Troughstone.
Rulandus: An Abscess at the End of the Fingers.
Rulandus: A Composition of Equal Parts of Gold and Silver.
Rulandus: is Roman Camomile. Some say it is Persicaria.
Rulandus: A Share in a Mine.
Rulandus: Shares in a Mine.
Rulandus: Trunion, Gudgeon, or Stud.
Rulandus: Wall.
Rulandus: A Metallic Foot.
Rulandus: i.e., Sulphur.
Rulandus: i.e., Patricide, i.e., Satyrion, the Herb Ragwort.
Rulandus: The Father and Mother of the King. The old philosophers have had such wonder and admiration for the Stone, and so greatly rejoiced therein, that they have not known how to describe it sufficiently, or how to glory in it or praise it. They have called it the Microcosm, the Element, Heaven, Earth, Stars. Unto all things have they compared it. Also they have called it the State of Marriage and the Birth of Children, as the old proverb runs.
The Sun is its Father
Rulandus: Noha, Coelum.
The Moon is its Mother
Rulandus: Aretia, Nohae, Woman, Vesta.
The Wind carries him in its Bosom
Rulandus: Air, Spirit.
The Earth nourishes him, etc.
Then the Sun is, with its warmth and power, the Father of all Vegetation; the Moon, with its moisture, is the Mother; the Air must embrace and carry all things; and the Earth must nourish.
But there is something peculiar in this operation, for the Metallic Sun is a true Father, and gives the masculine seed. The Moon is a true Mother, and gives the feminine seed. The Wind and Air must raise it and conduct it, as Hermes says. Our Mercury rises in the glass; the Earth lies beneath and comprehends in itself soul and spirit, so that a perfect child and king may be born.
The father is our sulphur, the mother is our Mercury, which carries the sulphur within it. For the woman shall have a ruddy-coloured child. When it is born, the red again becomes visible, and the woman becomes changed into a red man. She becomes an androgyne. The man, says Senior, is without wings, is taken up and down. When it is coagulated, the moon is dark; therefore he is called a shade. The wife is bright, is called a ray, and shining of the sun; she draws the shadow out of the brilliance, which is coagulated.
The husband is called Lead, Mars. The wife is called Venus and Arsenic. The husband is also the wife, and the wife is also the husband, like Eve. The sleeping man lost his ribs. However, he is not glorified, because he does not die. After death, in the resurrection is he glorified. So also is it the case with our Adam. Even in his first sleep Eve is given him. Afterwards, in the second solution he dies, and he arises gloriously. Then Eve can never moree be torn from him (S. Ternesius). The father is the calcination ; the mother is the solution ; the fountain is its mother. And he is yet older than the fountain, because he is born perfect. For that which is perfect is before that which is imperfect. But there is in Mercury that which is desired by Philosophers.
Rulandus: Scaly, a Scale, Metallic Shavings.
Rulandus: Tartar.
Rulandus: Mercury.
Rulandus: Lime from the extremely White Ears of Marine Fish.
Rulandus: is a Circulating Vessel, in the shape of a Pelican pecking its own breast with its beak, and thus feeding its young. It has a full body, which narrows towards the neck, and the neck bends round and the mouth goes back into the body. This vessel has a channel at the bottom, by which the liquor is poured in, and then the entrance is hermetically sealed.
Rulandus: is Boiled Honey.
Rulandus: are Secret or Interior Spirits of the Element of Fire, or of Heaven, born with us. They are also called Penuarii, Lares Hercii, Ephestii, Etesii, and Meilichii.
Rulandus: i.e., Submersion.
Rulandus: Called also Periamata, Periapta, Apotroptea, Parartemata, is an Amulet which is worn round the neck, and is supposed to preserve the wearer against evil spirits and sorcery.
Rulandus: Wine seasoned with Herbs.
Rulandus: Small Yellow Carrots or similar Vegetable.
Rulandus: The Muscle of Life; the Pulse.
Rulandus: Water, Fishing, or Jack Boots.
Rulandus: To Purify by Burning.
Rulandus: A Bar.
Rulandus: Measuring Rods.
Rulandus: A Measure of One Foot.
Rulandus: i.e., Jamen Alum.
Rulandus: Hematite; Bloodstone.
Rulandus: The Herb Angelica.
Rulandus: i.e., Iron.
Rulandus: are Apparitions which haunt desert places and the seashore, and speak with imaginative people. They are not diabolical, though they frequently cause terror. They are born of imagination.
Rulandus: A Glass Vessel used frequently in coagulations and solutions. It has a globular body and a long slender neck or funnel.
Rulandus: i.e., Violent; Rapacious; a Robber.
Rulandus: A Species of Flux caused by the Coostrum (unknown).
Rulandus: The Quintessence of Fire, or the Illustrious Philosophic Stone.
Rulandus: Things naturally hostile to one another, as the stork to the frog, cats to mice, spiders to flies.
Rulandus: i.e., Flower of Copper.
Rulandus: Atrophy; Consumption; the plague which parches up, cessation of nourishment, arising through fear or from excessive appetite.
Rulandus: is the Art by which a Man's Nature is judged from his Bodily Appearance.
Rulandus: Post or Pillar.
Rulandus: Brazen Vessels wherein Things are well pounded.
Rulandus: White Hairs round the Tail and Neck of the Hare.
Rulandus: A Mouse's Ear.
Rulandus: i.e., Clay, Slag, or ?Fired Hearth"
Rulandus: i.e., any Fatty Substance.
Rulandus: Pump-handle.
Rulandus: Mllllet.
Rulandus: Bat Beater.
Rulandus: A Beam.
Rulandus: A Smooth Pole.
Rulandus: The Top of the Instrument with which Copper is pounded. Also Broken Pieces of Copper or Brass.
Rulandus: A Kind of Copper-stone.
Rulandus: To Strain anything through a Colander, to Filter.
Rulandus: i.e., to Beat, Crush, Pound.
Rulandus: Pestle, Mallet.
Rulandus: Terebinth.
Rulandus: Pitch.
Rulandus: The Hauling Gallery driven for the Dip of the Vein.
Rulandus: Our Brass, is the Husband, and Impure Bodies.
Rulandus: The Hermaphrodite.
Rulandus: Is attributed to Saturn by chemists and is so called. It is a Livid, Terrene, Heavy, Metallic Body, with very little Whiteness and much of Earthy Nature. It is converted into Tin by cleansing. Thus Tin is more perfect than Lead. And Lead has more of the substance of Fixed Sulphur in its composition than Jupiter, i.e., Tin. Lead is an Impure Body, procreated from the copulation of Imperfect Living Silver, which is impure, unfixed, terrene, feculent, somewhat white on the exterior, but red inside, with a similar quality of Sulphur. It is wanting in purity, fixation, colour, and fire. In sum, Living Silver, which is of bad quality, gross, of bad taste, fetid, and of feeble power, like a menstruous mother, unites with a livid or leprous Sulphur, and frigid Saturn for a son is the result, and this is Lead. Note that pure solid Lead is not obtained from the mines. I have never read, heard, or seen that it has been so found. Three qualities of Lead are excocted
black (which is true Lead), grey, and white. Black Lead is excocted from Galena, or Lead Ore, or from Pyrites. As to its cleansing and burning, and its medicinal uses, consult Dioscorides (1. 5, c. 48). Purified Lead is still used medicinally for inflamed ulcers and cancers. True burnt Lead is more efficacious than washed or purified Lead. And potters use it to colour their vessels. Scoria or recrement of Lead is the same as burnt bead, and it abounds in the workshops of Misnia where Lead Ore is smelted.
Rulandus: Grey Lead is the German Bismuth. It differs from the black and white species, and is, as it were, a metal by itself. It is more noble than Lead, but inferior to Silver, and has a middle position between both. The Ore from which it is excocted is like that of Black Lead, with this difference, that unless it is solid, it blackens the hand. When solid, it is not brittle, like Galena. It is blacker than the variety of rude Silver which we term lead-coloured. It often contains Silver, and where it is found there is generally Silver lower down, for which reason it is called the Roof of Silver. Many articles are now made from it, even as from Silver, such as drinking-cups, vases, etc. A species of blue is also obtained from it. The Arabs and many chemists were ignorant of this metal.
As Black Lead is called Lead simply by the Germans, or Black Lead, so White Lead is called Ceruse or Tin. But it is an error to term our White Lead Tin, for they are distinct things. White Lead is more pure and perfect than Black. Pliny calls it Cassiterion, from the Cassiterides Islands, where it was first found by Midacrytus. Like Black Lead, it is now melted out of Pyrites or out of Galena, Gravel or Coarse Sand, as well as out of those Black Pebbles which are mentioned by Pliny, who also says that White Lead is found in Britain, Galicia, and Lusitania. Caesar, De Bello Gallico, 1. 5, also affirms its existence in Britain.
Rulandus: Black Lead.
1. Native Black Lead in a black ore, but impure.
2. Black Lead in a vein of white ore like Opaque White Floors.
3. Black Lead in a white vein like Clear White Fluors. There is sixty percent of the metal.
4. Caldebornian Black Lead, like Grey Marl.
5. Like a white Sandy Stone.
6. Like a Metallic Flint, with veins of Living Sulphur.
7. From Polonia, mixed with Native Ochre.
8. Flowers of Black Lead, like White Corals.
9. Yellow, full of lines of Slimy Sulphur, hence called Lead Sulphur.
10. Smelted Black Lead from Villacense.
11. Very soft Palatine Black Lead.
12. Refined soft Lead.
13. Containing much Silver.
14. Raw Lead containing Gold.
15. Raw Lead containing Silver.
16. Raw Lead, mixed with Silver, Copper and Gold.
17. Purified Lead, which is used for testing purposes.
18. Hard Lead, composed of Spume of Silver and Lead Ore.
19. Lead smelted from Spume of Silver.
20. Added as a flux to metals in excoction.
21. Granulated Lead.
22. Reduced to the finest powder or granules, and so used by the Venetians.
23. Common Lead Ochre.
24. Best English Lead Ochre.
25. Ceruse.
26. Native Ceruse from Vincentinus.
27. Minium made from burnt ceruse.
28. Minium imperfectly burnt.
29. Minium obtained from a Lead Stone rich in Silver.
30. Recrement or Scum extracted from Lead.
31. White Tapping or Recrement of Gossarian Black Lead.
32. Impure White Tapping of Lead.
33. Lead reduced to ash by the power of fire.
34. Alchemistic Lead Pigment-Lead Ash of the chemists.
35. A poisonous, slimy Lead Smoke, generated in smelting lead from silver.
36. Cleansed or Washed Lead of Dioscorides.
37. Burnt Lead of Dioscorides.
Rulandus: 1. Purest White Lead from the valley of Joachim.
2. Small White Granules obtained at the same place by washing.
3. Filaments of White Lead, collected in rivers.
4. Purest Native White Lead, mined at Slacchenvald.
5. Lead Crystals of Aldenberg, like Clear White Fluors.
6. Yellow Crystals, like Living Sulphur in Hegnist Metal.
7. Slimy.
8. Red-yellow Lead Crystal.
9. Purple.
10. Green Lead Crystals, found in the waters near Schreckenberg.
11. White Lead Crystals collected in rivers.
12. White, found on the riverbanks near Schneberg.
13. Minute Black Lead Crystals deposited by the rivers.
14. Small Black Stones containing Lead.
15. Moderate-sized Black Stones containing Lead.
16. Large Black Stones containing Lead.
17. A Black Pebble, pure and unique. A very Rich Calcareous Sheolite.
18. Black and Yellow Pebbles, combined, from Hegnist.
19. Small Black Stones, combined with Thin Plates of the Finest White Lead, in a Yellow Fluor.
20. Black Stones of Slacchenvald, in a White Metallic Stone.
21. Black Stones in a Grey Metallic Stone.
22. Moderate-sized Black Stones in a Metallic Marble.
23. In a White Sexangular Pellucid Fluor.
24. Bohemian, in a Ruddy Cuprine Stone.
25. In an Iron Stone.
26. In White Pellucid Mirror Stone of Slacchenvald.
27. With Pyrites.
28. Of a Greyish Black Colour.
29. Stone of White Lead in a Metallic Flint.
30. A Vein of White Lead, combined with Metallic Cadmia.
31. A Mined Substance similar to Mica Silver.
32. Best and Purest English White Lead.
33. Purest Cooked White Slacchenvald Lead.
34. Adulterated Lead, to which Black Lead is added.
35. Lead containing Silver.
36. Hard.
37. Soft.
38. Reduced to Powder.
39. Soft Cancellate Lead.
40. Lead formed in Hard Blocks.
41. Smelted out of Recrements.
42. Ceruse from White Lead.
43. Small Black Sterile Stones, similar in form and colour to Black Aerolites. When melted with White Lead Stones, that which remains becomes hard, and is marked with spots.
44. Anneberg Lead Stones; when struck with a hammer, they appear like clay. They are not suitable for combination, because they contain stony matter.
45. White Lead, Cooked, and to which Grey Lead is added.
46. Recrement of White Lead.
Rulandus: Grey Lead.
1. This is called Bismuth by our Metallurgists, and it is also usually termed the Roof of Silver, Silver being generally found beneath.
2. White Flower of Grey Lead.
3. Purple.
4. Red.
5. Pure Native Grey Lead, which is Solidified into Stone in the Mountains by Internal Heat, and takes the form of Indian Salt.
6. Aldeburg Lead in a Hard Grey Stone.
7. Crustaceous Lead from the Valley of Joachim.
8. Glebous Lead of Schneberg in a Black Friable Stone.
9. In a White Stone.
10. In a very Hard White Flint.
11. Tessellated in a Grey Stone.
12. Veins of Roasted Grey Lead, from which, by the potency of fire, granules like unto the Purest Silver are extracted.
13. Excocted Grey Lead.
14. Impure Blocks from Grey Lead.
15. Pure Blocks of Grey Lead.
16. Scarce Excocted Grey Lead.
17. Veins of Burnt Grey Lead, or Saffron-coloured Lead, used by Potters for Glazing.
18. Recrement of Grey Lead, of a Saffron Colour.
Rulandus: Lead reduced into Granules.
Rulandus: Rich Lead.
Rulandus: Lead reduced to Ashes by the power of Fire.
Rulandus:Uncalcined Lead.
Rulandus: Untranslatable. According to the German version, Black Lead of an Impure Kind.
Rulandus: are one and the same. We prove this statement in the following manner. First, Black Lead and Silver are prepared from our mined Plumbago, out of Glance and Lead Oil, at Friburg and Misnia, at Goslaria, and many other places, just as Pliny (1. 34, c. 18), treating of Molybdena and Galena, says. Therefore our Plumbago, our Glance, is Galena and Black Lead. Secondly, the mention of the word proves it to be one and the same; for what Pliny (1. 33, c. 6) or the Spaniards call Galena we now call Glance. But Marcellus, the interpreter of Dioscorides, a man on other points leaned enough, asserts that it is not called Galena, for Pliny denies that Black Lead is made in Galicia. It is nevertheless made from Galena. Thirdly, our Plumbago is chiefly of the colour of Lead, and for this reason is called by the Greeks Molybdena, and by the Romans Plumbago, or the Stone whence Lead is made. Thus it may either be called the Lead Stone, a vein of Lead Ore, or Lead Earth. Fourthly, Pliny says nothing about the stone Molybdos, of which, nevertheless, Dioscorides wrote, and was contented with the name of Galena. Then the Galena and the Molybdos of Dioscorides are one and the same. Fiftly, Galen says that he has himself seen a kind of Native Molybdena lying along the banks of rivers; nor does he make mention of the Lead Stone, because he considered them one and the same. Therefore Molybdena and Lead Stone are the same. In the sixth place, Galen states, in his book concerning the composition of medicines, that out of Ceruse and White Litharge, and from Grey Molybdena, which is of an ashen colour, Hydrelagon is made, and this is our Galena, not indeed the yellow but the leaden. Therefore Galena and Molybdena are one and the same. Seventhly, according to Dioscorides, our Galena, which is of the colour of Lead, is called the Leaden Stone, because it is a species of Lead, and contains the matter of Lead in itself. Moreover, it has the same properties as Washed Lead and Lead Scoria. It is washed in the same manner. It differs from the Native Molybdena of Dioscorides in colour alone, not in matter, for he writes that his mined Yellow Molybdena is brilliant, but the colour can easily be changed in the case of Plumbago by means of different gases stirred up from the bowelss of the earth. Thus, with us, in our mines, Black, Blue, and Liver-coloured Galena are all found. Just as Yellow Galena can be certainly found in warm regions, also there is found a Galena in our mines which is covered with a yellow colour, possibly the Molybdena of Dioscorides, and this yellow with which the Galena is tinged is sometimes found in veins, and is sometimes tempered by the heat of the earth. It sparkles, especially when split up, so that it seems to contain a metal. The Arabs know nothing about Molybdena, or think it to be the same as Litharge. They are indeed the same in temperament. Molybdena, however, is slightly colder. Its parts are denser. It does not possess the power of cleansing. Serapion has little or nothing about the virtue of Molybdena. (See lib. Agg., s.v. Hasas.) If indeed you wish to have any difference or distinction, call Molybdena the Lead Stone when it contains Lead alone. On the contrary, when it contains Lead and Silver, call it Galena. Whereas, therefore, Molybdena, Plumbago, and Galena are one and the same, note that Galena or Molybdena is twofold, native and manufactured.

The native is again double, i.e., I. Fruitful, which is a Vein of Lead alone, and then it is called Lead Stone by Pliny and Galen. Pliny (1. 33, c. 6) calls Galena a Vein of Lead, found near Veins of Silver. Next, because the Vein contains both Silver and Black Lead, we smelt lead and silver from it, and then it is truly Galena. This fruitful Galena is again twofold-as respects colour, not substance. They are of the same matter, though the colour differs;
1. A kind of Brilliant Lead, and this is our Plumbago, Galena, or Molybdena of Pliny. By Dioscorides, however, it is called the Lead-like Stone.
2. A Yellow Lead also Brilliant, described by Dioscorides. It is found at Sebastia and Coricum.
It is also mentioned by Pliny, who says that Molybdena or Galena is better when it is of a more golden colour, when it is less leaden and brittle, and is slightly heavier. In warm regions it is possibly given this colour by parched gases from the bowels of the earth. For if you rightly consider our Plumbago, as to its colour, and how it received that colour in the bowels of the earth, you will find that Plumbago has received the following colours in our mines, owing to different vapours:
1. Black.
2. Blue.
3. Liver-coloured.
4. Covered with a Yellow Colour
Rulandus: possibly that of Dioscorides. By the Germans all these species are called simply Lead Ore, or Glance, on account of their brilliance.
II. Sterile Plumbago is of no account. Its colour is not unlike the fruitful species, but it is altogether barren, and is wholly consumed by fire.
Manufactured Plumbago, made in furnaces of Gold and Silver. It is called Metallic by Pliny (1. 34, c. 18). It is called by the Germans Graphite, or Compressed Galena. By some it is called Silver Litharge, because of its affinity with Scoria of Silver. This is not its proper name. Pliny also regards it as a species of Silver Litharge. Dioscorides states that manufactured Plumbago competes with Silver Litharge. Emplastrum is made from it as from native Galena. Note that this metallic substance liquefies when treated by fire. Moreover, when cooked in oil it assumes a liver colour, which is not the case with the native, as Pliny affirms, who in this place misinterprets Dioscorides. Native Plumbago, cooked in oil, has the colour of the liver. Note, finally, that Sylvaticus in his Pandectis calls Molybdena Burnt Lead, and the Refuse of Lead. Truly there is an agreement here! This Molybdena, or Black Lead, is by no means Lead, or the refuse, or the scoria, of Lead, but it is the residuum, so to speak, of Plumbago, which contains Silver and Lead, and which adheres to furnaces, and Pliny notwithstanding, again becomes cooked Lead. Sylvaticus, however, errs in this passage; concerning the properties and the methods of washing and burning it, consult Dioscorides and Pliny, as also concerning its excoction (1, 34, c. 16), where the latter says that the source of Black Lead is twofold, for it exists either in a vein of its own, or else in combination with Silver. It is melted from mixed veins. The first liquid that begins to flow in the furnace is Tin; the second, Silver ; that which remains in the furnace is called Galena, which is the third portion added to the vein. This, again smelted, yields Black Lead.
Metallic or Native Plumbago, in Spanish Galena, i.e., a Vein of Lead and Silver indifferently.
1. Glance.
2. Simple Plumbago, Pure Glance.
3. Rich Plumbago, containing Cobalt and Arsenic.
4. Mixed with White Pyrites.
5. Cubical Glance in White Lime-stone.
6. Tessellated, in Long, White, and Pellucid. Fluors.
7. Intermixed with Yellow Fluors in a White Stone, which Melts in Fire.
8. With White Pyrites in a White Flint.
9. Quadrangular, in Purple Fluors.
10. Octagonal in another Barren Plumbago, or a Sulphuret of Zinc.
11. Polish Plumbago, containing Yellow Ochre.
12. Cloddy, in alternate layers, with a Grey Crustaceous Pyrites.
13. Mixed with Flint.
14. With Yellow Transparent Fluors.
15. Tessellated in White Fluors.
16. Of a Red Colour, whence Lead is abundantly smelted.
17. Black Glance, so dyed by a Vein of Copper.
18. Of a Liver Colour, which is derived from other Metals. When the external colour is rubbed off, its proper colour remains.
19. Of a Yellow Colour, like Muddy Fluors.
20. Of a Red or Rusty Colour, like a Solid or Refined Copper.
21. Cloddy, from Friberg Glance, containing Cobalt and Arsenic.
22. Like Copper Glance.
23. From Islebia, in a Slate Stone.
24. Rich in Gold and Lead.
25. Abundant in Copper and Lead.
26. From Friberg, dyed various colours, a kind of Glance.
Barren Plumbago:
1. Resembling Barren Pitch.
2. Containing Cobalt and Arsenic.
3. Yellow and Brilliant, from Schurfenberg, near Meissen. A Light Yellow Pseudo-Galena.
4. A variety of the preceding.
5. Sterile, resembling Galena.
Rulandus: is a certain kind of earth, which Dioscorides says resembles Eretrian Earth in colour, for which also it is sold. It has, however, a larger clod, and is cold to the hand. We ourselves have a black earth, which is not Pnigitis, but it is very black. This earth sometimes contains Silver. It is then called Coarse Silver. Sometimes it is barren, and then it is called Black Earth, and is indeed the same as Dioscorides calls Melanteria. It is of a sulphureous hue, becoming black on contact with water. True Pnigitis is not found in our land. In the torrent of Garmendorf, as it passes to meet the Saale, a Black Friable Stone is met with, whence boys' ink is made. It seems to be Pnigitis hardened by heat, of great size, but light in proportion to the size. Or it is simply Ochre, which, being burnt by the heat of the sun or of the earth, turns into Rubrica, or Ruddle. It may be a kind of Ampelis. It can be reduced into an extremely delicate and well-digested soft powder. It is an extremely beautiful substance, although it may be despised by the inhabitants of those regions.
Rulandus: A Large Cask.
Rulandus: Gum.
Rulandus: Concerning this substance and the varieties of the same, see Dioscorides, who seems to confound Pompholix, Spodon, and Antispodon. In the first place, Pompholix is the same as that which is called white nothing or nil by vendors of medicines. Hence the proverb that nothing is good for the eyes. They also call it White Pompholigum, which is coarser. On the other hand, Spodicem is what the chemists call Black Poncplcolix. Avicenna, if I rightly remember, calls it Succudus, i.e., full of sap. Thirdly, Antispodiusc, which takes the place of Spodium in use, is produced from the leaves, flowers, and immature berries of the Astringent Myrtle, or from a branch of Olive Wood as Dioscorides and Pliny tell us. Note that neither Spodon nor Antispodon are found nowadays; we do not actually know what they are, or how made. To deal with the substances themselves: Pompholix is a Metallic Ash, which is produced upon the tops or walls of furnaces, or of huts where there are extinguished furnaces. This Ash varies with the metals and the place of production. Grey Pompholix is obtained from Pyrites rather than from Lead Stone. Hence that of Goslar is better than any from Meissen, and contains Silver, Lead, and Copper. So also Dioscorides says that the best quality comes from Cyprus. That which adheres to the tops and walls of furnaces is Spodion. On the other hand, that which hangs from the top is Pompholix, differing from the first in whiteness and polish. Dioscorides states that the difference is specific, not generic. Spodon is:
1. Black.
2. Heavy.
3. Full of Straws.
4. Swept from the floors of Laboratories.
Pompholix is White like a Bubble, or like that Greek- vessel of globular shape from which it obtains its name. It is fat, light, and pure, and is produced on the top of furnaces. There are, however, properly speaking, two kinds of Pompholix.
1. Somewhat thick, and of a copperish hue. Its proper name is grey nothing.
2. Exceeding white, of the highest polish. Produced either in perfecting Copper, when the Cadmic purposely strewn upon the surface is rubbed off; or from Cadmia melted by means of bellows. Dioscorides gives a lengthy description of the method. The thin and very light matter which finds its way to the top of the furnace and adheres to the walls and roof is Pompholix, but the heavier substance which betakes itself to the lower parts is Spodion.
Dioscorides gives us further information as to genuine and adulterated Pompholix, the method of washing it, its virtues as an astringent, cooling, purifying, obstructing, and drying agent. He describes its torrefaction or roasting, and tells us from what substances it is preferably obtained-?namely, Gold, Silver, Lead, and Brass. Next to Pompholix from Cyprian Ore comes Pompholix from Lead. Pliny endorses these statements. Galen ascribes more powerful virtues to Pompholix than to Spodion. Indeed, Pompholix has a combination of virtues. Under Cadmia we have mentioned that Cadmia Botryitis, or Grape-shaped Cadmia, is called Arabian Tutty.
Accordingly, that of Alexandria is called Dry or Solid. But Botryitis Cadmia is not the same substance as Cadmia, to which the Arabs and Serapion testify. For the Spodion here treated of is Tutty and a matter of importance. Botryitis is not Tutty. Dioscorides mentions Spodion and not Tutty. What is called Tutty by the Arabs and Pompholix by the Greeks is by us termed Spodion. Avicenna testifies to this fact. We can use Botryitis Cadmia instead of Tutty, that is, of Spodion, if it has been prepared. The difference between Botryitis and Capnitis Cadmic, and between Pompholix and Spodion, which are all made of the same material, depends upon the places where they are made. Cadmic Botryitis is made or deposited on the walls or the highest roofs of the furnaces. On the other hand, Capnitis is, properly speaking, obtained from the edges of the furnaces. Genuine Pompholix, or White Nothing, an exceedingly light Metallic Ash, is produced on the tops of furnaces, or even on the tops of the huts in which the furnaces are situated. If obtained from the mouth of the furnace, it is Cadmia Capnitis; if from the sides and roofs, it is Pompholix; that which adheres to the walls is Spodion. Young students should diligently observe these points. The Arabs distinguish two varieties of Tutty: Native Tutty
Rulandus: White, Green, or Citrine-found among minerals on the shores of the Indian Ocean; also Manufactured, of which we treat here. Observe also that besides the Sooty Spodion of Serapion, Dioscorides, Pliny, and Galen
Rulandus: who says: I have never used Spodion, because I have always found Pompholix in abundance
Rulandus: the Arabs distinguish two other species.
1. Spodion from a reed and the root of a reed, or a product of Burnt Ultramarine, as Avicenna has it, who describes Spodion, saying: Spodion is a Root of Burnt Reeds, being cold in the second and dry in the third degree. But it may also be obtained from Burnt Ivory.
2. Spodion derived from the Calcined Bones of Elephants, Dogs, and other
Bone is still found to exist in Spodion, at any rate in the variety which is obtained from ivory. It should be noted that now-a-days we never see either Spodion or Antispodion in our laboratories, and nobody knows them by experience; we carefully collect foreign substances, but those close at home we neglect. It should be rescued by physicians from the furnaces, but I speak to dull ears. Moreover, some call Copper Rust Spodion. The statement of Pliny should be noted, that Pompholix and Spodion are found in copper mines, and that Pompholix differs from Spodion in the fact that the first is subjected to washing, while the second is not. He also states that Pompholix is an extremely white and polished substance and is the smoke from Copper and Cadmia. Spodion, however, is blacker and heavier; it is rubbed from the walls of furnaces, and is frequently mixed with embers and coals. That from Cyprus is the best, and it is obtained by melting Cadmia and Copper Stone. The same author represents Red Mellea as a species of Spodion. Then there is another kind called Lauriotis, which is obtained from gold and silver smelting furnaces. Finally, he mentions Antispodion, and enumerates its medical virtues. He is also the authority for the statement that Spodion can be produced from Lead in the same way as from Cyprian Copper.
Spodion: From Cyprian Copper, as stated by Dioscorides and Pliny. Our Spodion Goslarian Spodos has similar qualities. From Lead, in the smelting houses of Misnia,
1. The Soot which is collected in Compartments of Furnaces.
2. Pompholix from Silver.
3. Slimy, sticking to the walls where Silver is separated from bead. Yellow, Poisonous, Crystalline Arsenic.
4. From Mansfeld Copper.
5. That which is collected where Silver is separated from Copper.
6. Obtained from Furnaces where White Lead is smelted.
7. Purest White. Best Crystalline Arsenic.
8. That which is Solidified from Pieces of Stone roasted when Copper is
9. White Pompholix, termed by the Metallurgists White Nothing.
Rulandus: are one and the same.
Rulandus: Crystalline Arsenic.
Rulandus: A Gum so called.
Rulandus: Shavings from Hammered Iron.
Rulandus: A Rasp or Copper Mortar.
Rulandus: A Corn on the Foot.
Rulandus: That which can be Drunk in by the Mouth.
Rulandus: Flower of Copper.
Rulandus: i.e., Press, Wine-press, etc,
Rulandus: is when bodies rusted by means of Corroding Waters and dissolved into Water are reduced to a sort of Lime by removal of the Corroding Water. Thus Silver is precipitated when it is dissolved in Aqua Fortis by the injection of Common Salt or Ammoniac. So also is Gold reduced by dissolution in Aqua Regis with the addition of a little Quicksilver. If to this we add a small quantity of Sulphur, and place it in the fire in a closed vessel, in such a manner that the Quicksilver and the Sulphur can evaporate and depart, a most subtle Lime will be left. But by so much the more that bodies are dissolved, by so much also can they be calcined into a more subtle condition.
Rulandus: Overseer of the Mines.
Rulandus: A Presage, is a Wonderful Sign of a Future Event, anticipating History. Thence Prophecies are sometimes made.
Rulandus: Medicaments which Preserve Life and Prevent Corruption.
Rulandus: Head Or Overseer of the Mines.
Rulandus: Master of the Mine.
Rulandus: Superintendent of the Laboratory, Chief Refiner.
Rulandus: Superintendent of the Washing Process.
Rulandus: Ceruse, White Lead.
Rulandus: The Principles of the Alchemists are three in number: Salt, Sulphur, and Mercury, i.e., Body, Soul, and Spirit. Thence spring all things which exist; they can be exhibited in all things, and into them all things can be resolved.
Salt gives consistency, colour, strength, hardness; it makes substances visible and tangible; without it, they could not be grasped. It is depicted as follows
Rulandus: [Sol], fiery and watery.
Sulphur imparts warmth, light, and strength; it gives the tincture. It is represented by a [Venus] fiery, with the Cross and Labour.
Mercury gives sponginess, subtlety, and fusibility, also weight and malleable quality; it makes them capable of being hammered and forged; it gives also celestial efficacy; it is represented by [Mercury], which enters into many planetary characters, and is connected with the symbols of Gold and Silver.
Rulandus: Principles are those things whence a substance is produced in any genus of composites. These primes, or principles, because of their immanence, have a certain basic substance, wherein they flourish, and whereby they are produced. They are not those of Aristotle, which are not primeval substances, but, as the types of every genus, have at the same time an analogy with our principles. The properties of principles are based sometimes in the elemental and sometimes in the celestial region. Accordingly, they sometimes resemble elements, and at other times essences. These principles are three
Rulandus: Mercury, Salt, Sulphur.
Rulandus: The First Flux.
Rulandus: Illusory Bodies made visible by the agency of the Stars.
Rulandus: The exaltation of a substance by a Projecting Medicine -which is projected over the matter to be transformed, by a sudden egression. It corresponds to the process of fermentation, which changes a matter substantially by acting within it. It differs from it, however, in that it is not effected by means of a slow digestion, whereby the different parts undergo alteration and mixture; it is, on the contrary, performed by a violent interpenetration, which transforms at the moment of ingression. Moreover, the Medicine is not called a Ferment, but a Tincture.
Rulandus: An Extraction by means of a Thinning of the Subtle Parts, so that being rarefied by the change of their nature, and separated from their coarser parts, they assume a certain consistency. Accordingly, things employed in prolectation are called Attenuating Agents. Before the substance to be operated on assumes consistency, a free, gaseous, or watery matter is added; the prolectation takes place by the agency of the several elements, and the substance operated on may differ from a solid earth only by reason of its lightness and instability.
Rulandus: A First Species of Tartar; a sort of Stone in the Stomach.
Rulandus: Persian Fire; the Disease called St. Anthony's Fire.
Rulandus: i.e., Sand.
Rulandus: White Lead.
Rulandus: Ceruse.
Rulandus: Coldness.
Rulandus: Temporal Artery; the Pulse; Arterial Veins.
Rulandus: A Profound Stupor; Apoplexy; Palsy; the Hand of God.
Rulandus: In Arabic Famechi or Fenec, i.e., Pumice Stone, or Stone of Vulcan. There are two kinds, black and white. The black is also called Tufa. The best quality is from Melos, Scyros, and the Aeolian Isles; it is very useful for polishing bodies, as Catullus tells us. Dioscorides describes the white variety as light, spongy, easily split, not sandy, capable of polish. He describes the method of burning it and its medicinal virtues, concerning which see also Pliny. Theophrastus, if I mistake not, says: We call it Pumice Stone on account of its hardness, not on account of its density; in this matter, it has scarcely the quality of a stone. It falls from the dignity of a stone, because it floats in water. Pumice Stone is found and produced in conjunction with Alum and Sulphur. I think it is earth completely burnt in the Isles, and to this waters are added. It is also called the Stone of Barche, and it is found on the seashore. Hence some imagine erroneously that it is the solidified foam of the sea. By the German rivers, especially the Elbe, and by the promontories of the old March, are found pale Stones, spongy and loose in texture, resembling Pumice Stone, but heavy, and which have been thought to be the foundation of Pumice Stone, or Pumice Stone not yet cooked by the sun. An experiment was made to see whether fire would diminish its weight, and it was found it did to a certain extent. Pliny states that seaweed and fungi are transformed into Pumice Stone by the action of the sun. See Serapion. Ovid, very elegantly describing the cavernous bath of Diana, represents it to be formed of Pumice Stone and Tuff Stone by Nature herself.

"In her furthest retreat is a woodland cavern not artificially elaborated; Nature by her own skill bath hollowed it out; she bath constructed it of living Pumice Stone and light Tufa".
Rulandus: Powder; Dust.
Rulandus: To Purge; Purifying.
1. Some Things are Purified by Distillation, as Water.
2. Some by Distillation, as Spirit.
3. Some by Solution, as Salt.
4. Some by Washing, as Cloth.
5. Some by Burning, as Lime.
6. Some by Separation, as Metals.
7. Some by Filtration, as through Cloth.
Rulandus: Silver Refiner.
Rulandus: To Putrefy.
Rulandus: Putrefaction takes place in Seven Ways.
1. Some Things are Cleansed by Distillation through the Alembic, as
2. Some by Sublimation, as Spirit.
3. Some by Solution, as Salt.
4. Some by Washing, as Cloth.
5. Some by Burning, as Lime.
6. Some by Separation, as Metals.
7. Some by Filtration, or Straining.
Rulandus: Reduction to Powder.
Rulandus: A Potent Powder.
Rulandus: A Shaft; a Ventilator; a Pit; a Well.
Rulandus: A Perpendicular Shaft.
Rulandus: A Conduit for Water.
Rulandus: Rotten, Loose, Friable.
Rulandus: Dissolution of a Composite Substance by Purification in Heated Moisture. It is necessary for the humidity to overcome the dryness by the agency of external heat. When this is done, the heat, being akin to its moist substance, is separated from the component parts, preserves its homogeneous nature, and solidifies apart. Accordingly, if the matter to be putrefied abounds in moisture, it is beaten up as it is, and operated on by the warm digestion of dung, or of the bath, a moist heat being applied externally. If the matter originally possesses little or no moisture, it is ground, and then proportionally sprinkled with moisture.

Putrefaction is the Dissolution of Component Parts, which have opened out under the dissolving power of a moist heat. It is the key to the most brilliant alchemical operations. It separates not so much the elements as the celestial essences from their elementary composition. Accordingly, in such experiments we must be on our guard against a complete dissolution, using only one that shall be enough to permit the escape of the essences. Hence it becomes plain that in composite substances, unusually removed from elemental simplicity, there is something internal besides the element, and this something is regarded as incombustible. By a natural putrefaction it produces a new substance, and solidifies. This kind of dissolution is twofold-putrefaction and dissolution by medicine.

There is another kind of putrefaction which occupies a middle place between corrosive calcination and putrefaction. It is called Dry and Philosophical Putrefaction. Some, not without reason, name it Sublimation of Elements, Cooking, and Solution. It takes place in the dry water of the philosophers, or very sharp vinegar, and belongs only to the Sun and Moon.

Putrefaction is a Digestion, dissolving the substance of the matter by the application of external heat. It is the property of putrefaction to destroy the old, original nature of a thing, and to introduce a new nature. It has sometimes the same result as a second generation. Corrosive spirits become sweet and mild thereby, and all colours are changed into others. The pure is separated from the impure-the latter sinking to the bottom. But the matter must be placed in the vessel, the vessel must be put into dung, the heat of the dung being sustained for a fixed period. It is preferable, however, for the vessel to be put into a bath of dew.

Putrefaction or Corruption takes place when a body becomes black. Then it stinks like dung, and true solution follows. The elements are separated and destroyed. Many colours are afterwards developed, until the victory is obtained and everything is reunited.
Putrefaction is understood as a Corruption which changes one thing into another.
Rulandus: An Internal Digestion of Iron.
Rulandus: Pygmies are Little Men or Subterranean Spirits. They are called also Torches and Sparks. They are said to have no parents, but are produced from the corruption of the earth, just as beetles are generated from putrid horsedung.
Rulandus: are the same, for what the Romans and Greeks called Pyrites the Arabs term Marcasite and Black Zeg. Others call it the Stone of Light, on account of its effects; also Marcasite Capporosa, Copper Stone, Chalcitis, Rock Alum in its first signification, etc. All that the Greeks have written concerning Pyrites the Arabs ascribe to Marcasite in their own language.
It is called Pyrites because fire is often struck from it. Hence we give it the generic name of Flint or Fire Stone. Soldiers use it for lighting bombs. It has also this name on account of its fiery colour. Otherwise, the Germans simply call it Gravel and Copper Stone. But these names have too wide a meaning.
Various kinds of Pyrites are found in our mines-Silver Colour, almost Gold Colour, True Gold Colour like Galena, Ashen Colour, and Iron Colour.
Silver-coloured Pyrites, the White or Water Pyrites, or Gravel of the Metallurgists. Silver is smelted from it. Pliny mentions it, if I mistake not, but, like all the ancients, is ignorant of its argentiferous character. Copper is also smelted from it, as Serapion testifies of Marcasite. Dioscorides also plainly states this fact concerning Pyrites. Silver-coloured Pyrites sometimes contains Silver only, sometimes Copper only, sometimes both, and again it may contain Silver and Black Lead, or several metals. Occasionally it is barren. I consider that it usually has more Silver than any other substance.

Semi-gold-coloured Pyrites, called by the Germans Yellow Pyrites, Yellow Copper, Pyrites Copper, Metal Regulus or Copper Ore. Found often in our Silver, but more frequently in our Copper Mines. Copper can be smelted from it. It is Pyrites proper, with the appearance of Copper, as Pliny observes. It is the true Marcasite of the Arabs, whence Copper is smelted. Dioscorides prefers it before all others for its medicinal value, especially when it is solid and yields sparks readily. He also shows how it is washed and burnt. Yet the first species of Pyrites is not to be despised medicinally. When Dioscorides says the second kind is like Copper, he refers to its shape rather than its colour. Like the former, it contains sometimes Silver, sometimes Copper, sometimes both, sometimes other metals, and occasionally it is barren. Pliny testifies that both species were found in Cyprus and round Acarnania or Acamania. It exists in many of our own mines. Whether of Golden or Silver Colour, it is often found among argentiferous metals, and still more often in a sterile vein of its own. It is also found in brooks and rivers, such as the Elbe. When it exists in large quantities a kind of stone is obtained from it which is very useful in smelting. Sterile Pyrites is found abundantly at Havelburg, and is very beautiful.
True Gold-coloured Pyrites has a larger proportion of Sulphur. It is sometimes combined with the fourth species. It is brilliant and pleasant to the sight. It abounds in Bohemia and Misnia.
Galena-coloured Pyrites-sparkling and brilliant. Agricola thinks that it may be neither Pyrites nor Galena, but a distinct genus. It is true that Pyrites possesses neither its colour nor hardness. It has the colour of Galena, but its substance is very different. Gold and Silver are smelted from it. It abounds near Reichstein and Ravrisum, but at the latter place contains more Silver than Gold, while at the former Gold preponderates, or is exclusive.
Grey Pyrites is found in an exceedingly subtle condition at Reichstein, and is combined with the fourth species, so that Gold can be smelted from it. It exists in a slightly different form in Silesia, and from this also Gold and Silver are smelted.
Iron-coloured Pyrites is mentioned by Avicenna. It is found in certain iron mines. The miners call it Iron Stone, not that it is actually such, but is like it. From most of these six species fire can be struck. Some of them are very heavy, and are more adapted for striking fire, as Pliny observes. Some distinguish a special genus of Pyrites, which abounds in fire, and is called Live Pyrites. We may, indeed, deny that there is any other genus. Those species which are dense and compact, as the first two, abound in fire. The looser the texture, the more subtle and the more broken up, the less fire can be elicited. Albertus, though a man wise in his time, makes extraordinary mistakes about Pyrites, yet he is said to have written very carefully concerning all the metals. He states that fire consumes every species of Pyrites, or, as he calls it, Marcasite. He denies that Metals are melted from Marcasite, whereas Avicenna says that there is a Marcasite of Gold, Silver, Copper, and Iron. Dioscorides teaches that Copper is melted from Pyrites, and Serapion, the Arab, confirms the same point. Had Albertus read these statements he would not have fallen into such an error. He probably accepted the statements of chemists too readily, without diligently examining mines or metals. Pyrites has remarkable medicinal virtue of an abstergent and removing kind. As to its burning and washing, see Dioscorides. Pliny states that Black Pyrites burns the hand when touched. Hence the ancient verses: " It requires to be touched gently, and held in a delicate hand, for too hard a pressure burns his fingers who handles it".

I have not come across Black Pyrites myself, and so have been unable to test the above statement. Possibly Pliny is referring to Black Cobalt, which possesses the quality in question. Solinus corroborates Pliny, who also terms Coral Pyrites, because fire can be derived from it. On the same ground he institutes a comparison with Chalcedony and common Flint, while others identify our Cuprine Slate with Pyrites. This Stone is very susceptible to impressions when under the earth. Sometimes it has representations of fishes, serpents, and tree-crickets; sometimes an elaborate picture of a cock with drooping feathers and double comb.
Silver-coloured Pyrites:
1. Covered with Yellow Fluor.
2. Mixed with Yellow Fluors.
3. In a Metallic Marble-easily split, Wedge-shaped, yielding no Fire.
4. Mixed with White Fluor and Metallic Marble.
Gold-coloured Pyrites:
1. Solid, True Gold-colour-called by its Spanish name of Marcasite.
2. Mansfeldian, with White Opaque Fluors. 3. Earthy, rich in Plumbago and Glance.
True Gold-coloured Pyrites:
1. Earthy, like Fine Gold.
2. Earthy, with many Angles and Points.
3. Mixed with White Hornstone.
4. Composed of Small Square Stones.
5. Full of Angles, with White, Pellucid, Cubical Fluors on the outside.
6. Spongy, full of Round or Angular Granules.
Gold-coloured Pyrites from which fire is not struck:
1. Angular, Gold-yellow, Copper Pyrites in a Water Pyrites.
2. Gishubelian, containing Tinsel.
3. Ditto, containing Barren Pitch-like Plumbago.
4. Containing a beautiful Yellow Earth.
5. Annebergian, easily Melting in Fire.
Grey Pyrites yielding no fire:
1. Spongy and Honey-combed.
2. Containing Sterile Plumbago.
3. Of Loose Texture, like Soft Sandstone.
4. Spongy, with White Fluors, Sprinkled with Purple, Red, and Green Grains.
5. Earthy, containing much Gold and Silver.
6. Grey-black Suacensian Pyrites, devoid of Copper or Silver.
7. Spongy, Dyed Black by a Warm Exhalation.
8. Grey, Long, like a Bundle of Twigs, and exuding Atrament or Green Vitriol.
9. Earthy, Grey Copper-stone from Hildesheim, whence Atrament flows abundantly, according to the weather.
10. Earthy, from Radeberg, yielding Sulphur. Fire-yielding Pyrites of other colours.
11. Black, Earthy, like Pit Coal.
12. Sterile, Melts in Fire, often combined with Infusible Ore instead of Metals.
13. Easily Melted.
14. Poisonous Water-Flint, combined with Veins of White Lead at Eberndorf. It is fatal to drink or wash in it.
Various-coloured Pyrites, yielding no fire:
1. Golden, Green, Blue, Violet, Purple, and Grey-Spongy. Also White Iron Pyrites.
2. Golden, Red, Purple, Blue, and Green, in White Fluors.
3. Rainbow-tinted, on a Grey Stone.
4. Multi-coloured, in Metallic Marble, which is White upon Red in Flesh coloured Spar.
5. Variegated Copper Pyrites in Orange-coloured Ironstone.
6. Like Polished Copper, a Red Copper Pyrites.
7. Fine Red Copper Pyrites, on a Grey Stone, resembling Small Granulated Copper.
Fire-yielding Red Pyrites:
1. Red, very Hard, Copper Pyrites, from Islebia, like Red jasper.
2. Grey-white, Spongy, Fire-yielding.
3. Containing Metallic Plumbago, or Glance.
4. Spongy, tinged with Pyrites Water till it assumes a Copper-red, and resembles Polished, Purified Copper.
Pyrites of other colours, yielding no fire:
1. Spongy, Blue Pyrites.
2. Violet Brown.
3. Purple.
4. Brown or Purple, containing Native Chrysocolla.
5. Brilliant or Sparkling, like Plumbago.
Pyrites yielding sap:
1. Yielding Chalcitis.
2. Yielding Sory or Black Atrament.
3. Yielding Melanteria, a kind of Vitriol.
4. Grey, yielding Vitriol abundantly.
5. Silver-coloured in a vein of Quicksilver.
6. From Cromena in Moravia, yielding Sap like Red, Pellucid Sulphur.
Pyrites containing various metals:
1. Containing Gold.
2. Containing Silver.
3. Aserosus (?).
4. Found in Lygia, containing much Gold and Silver.
5. Bohemian, rich in Gold and Silver.
6. Rich in Copper and Black Lead.
7. Containing Lead and Iron.
8. Earthy, white, hard, fragmentary, used in polishing.
9. Found in ponds, gold-colour, in a cluster of two or three.
10. Silver-coloured, dyed grey by a slimy or poisonous vapour.
Fire-yielding Pyrites:
1. Eight or twelve-sided, white, Iron Pyrites.
2. Cloddy, in hard, white, sandy earth.
3. Brightish yellow, like Wolfs-Foam.
4. Fribergian, mixed with White Plumbago.
5. From Marieburg, composed of small tessellated pieces like Native Lead.
6. Containing Native Yellow Sulphur.
7. Scaly, resembling the skin of a serpent, dyed grey by subterranean vapour.
Silver-coloured Pyrites:
1. White Water Pyrites, as if made of small, thin, polished, silver crusts.
2. Cubical White Iron Pyrites.
3. A White Iron Pyrites in a metallic red spar.
4. Ornamented with square, purple, or amethyst-coloured transparent Runs.
5. In a silver-white spar, which sparkles like Mica.
6. White Iron Pyrites, covered with round, white grains of Quartz, like Coriander.
7. Spongy and sparkling.
8. Like Pumice-stone, dyed black by a warm exhalation.
Rulandus: i.e, Lithos, in Greek, Marcasite.
Rulandus: Art of prophesying by means of fire, when the stars of fire become visible to man, so that a true answer to a question is given without any hesitation. For instance, take the statements concerning the box-tree. When its leaves have been put in the fire, after writing severally upon them the names of suspected persons, that of the guilty individual is said to crackle and leap out. Pyromancy is the art of adapting fire to our purposes and of ruling it. In this art especially the diligence of the alchemist is manifested; great indeed is the praise of the artificer, although there is much more value in practice than in precept, and there are some things which require active eyes and hands, not words only. The external heat which the artificer employs as his primary instrument is a certain heat which we call fire. Yet is the operation of cold by no means to be excluded, nor moisture, nor dryness, which at times singly, and at times in combination, will much assist the master.
Rulandus: We only employ this term in the preparation of natural things by the aid of fire.
Rulandus: Otherwise, a Conical Pan-is a metallic vessel shaped like a pyramid internally, the upper part being broad. The lower part narrows down to a point. The interior is, therefore, like an inverted Cone. The lower part is useful for reducing molten metals to a regulus.

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